Glutaraldehyde As a Urine Adulterant

Glutaraldehyde has also been used as an adulterant to mask urine drug tests (18). This product is available under the trade name of UrinAid. Each kit contains 4-5 mL solution of glutaraldehyde, which is to be added to 50-60 mL of urine. Glutaraldehyde solutions are readily available in hospitals and clinics as a cleaning and sterilizing agent. A 10 solution of glutaraldehyde is also available from pharmacies as over-the-counter medication for treatment of warts. The addition of glutaraldehyde...

Amitava Dasgupta

Persons abusing drugs attempt to adulterate urine specimens in order to beat drug testing. Dilution of urine in vivo by consuming excess fluid and various detoxifying agents available through the Internet is a common practice. Household chemicals such as bleach, acid, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet-bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice, and Visine (Pfizer) eye drops are also used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except Visine eye drops can be detected by routine...

Oral Fluid As a Matrix for Drugsof Abuse Testing

The results of substance abuse deeply affect individuals, families, and society at large. One solution has been to test individuals for the presence of drugs of abuse (DOA). Such tests may be administered to job applicants and parolees, as well as immediately after accidents and along the roadside by police. Many countries have legislation in place or pending for drug testing. This legislation defines when, where, and how drug testing should be performed From Forensic Science and Medicine Drugs...

Changeable Bar Code Prelude to Digital Drug Testing

When one examines the results at the target zone of a multi-drug lateral-flow testing device, it appears that the series of color lines and spaces are elements of bar coded symbols. Bar codes, a series of bars and spaces, are encoded data elements representing numbers and or letters that can be decoded with the proper reader and decoder software. The configuration of the lateral-flow device with seven or more color lines and spaces may sometimes be confusing. The names of the drugs are marked...

Diluted Urine A Simple Way to Beat Drug Tests

A negative result for the presence of abused drugs in a urine specimen does not necessarily mean that no drug is present. It is also possible that the amount of drug was below the cut-off values used in the drug-testing protocol. Diluting urine is a simple way to beat an otherwise positive drug test if the original concentrations of drugs in the urine are just slightly above the cut-off values. To counteract this strategy, creatinine analysis in urine is an effective method to detect diluted...

Expected Drug Levels in Hair of Proven Drug Users

Norcocaine

The trapping of drugs in hair has been shown to be dose dependent (55,56). Many variables, however, impact the use of hair results to indicate amount of drug use. These include biochemical individuality, effective washing, and cosmetic treatments. Severe cosmetic treatments can reduce the amount of some drugs in hair, whereas normal shampooing serves to decontaminate, although only partially in many cases. Analyses of the hair from drug users who have tested positive in urinaly-sis provide a...

The eScreen System

In view of the deficiencies associated with the conventional POCT and the perception that a digital drug test could be created, a system known as eScreen was developed. eScreen combines the benefits of point-of-collection specimen collection with recent advances in information technologies to create an instrumented POCT system. eScreen monitored the progress of LFDOA development closely. LFDOA clearly led the market as the analytical method of choice. Easy-to-use, low-cost, highly sensitive...

Sample Adulteration in Urine DOA Testing

The instant DOA testing procedures are instituted, opposing forces are at work to develop methods to avoid detection of drug use. Initially, common household chemicals such as laundry bleach, table salt, toilet-bowl cleaner, hand soap, and vinegar were used. More recently, a variety of products became commercially available, which can be ordered through Internet sites and tollfree telephone numbers. Commercially available adulteration products can be classified into two broad categories. The...

Household Chemicals as Urine Adulterants

Simple household chemicals are found to be effective adulterants of urine drug tests. These include table salt, vinegar, liquid laundry bleach, concentrated lemon juice, and Visine eye drops (8,9). The effectiveness of these chemicals on specific drug tests is summarized below. Amphetamines sodium chloride at a concentration of 75 gm L of urine caused a false-negative drug test in a urine specimen containing 1420 ng mL of amphetamine. Similarly, Drano (bleach SC Johnson & Son) at a...

Michael I Schaffer and Virginia A Hill

Compounds trapped in hair during growth collect and remain in the mature hair strand. Defined lengths of the hair strand can be analyzed to provide information on ingestion of a substance during the window of time corresponding to the growth period of the segment of hair analyzed. Both screening (immunoassay) and confirmation (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry, gass chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) methods for drugs in hair require...

Drug Testing Technologies and Applications

Over the past few decades, a remarkable gamut of increasingly sophisticated technologies has been employed for the development of drug-testing applications. Recent advancements in analytical instrumentation and computer technologies have further expanded the capabilities and dimensions for drug testing and toxicological analysis. Technologies of different chemical principles can be used sequentially or in combination to accomplish the specific goals and requirements of the drug analysis...

References

Armbruster DA, Schwarzhoff RH, Pierce BL, and Hubster EC. Method comparison of EMIT II and ONLINE with RIA for drug screening. J Forensic Sci 1993 38 1326-1341. 2. Armbruster DA, Schwarzhoff RH, Hubster EC, and Liserio MK. Enzyme immuno-assay, kinetic microparticle immunoassay, radioimmunoassay, and fluorescence polarization immunoassay compared for drugs-of-abuse screening. Clin Chem 1993 39 2137-2146. 3. Armbruster DA, Hubster EC, Kaufman MS, and Ramon MK. Cloned enzyme donor immunoassay...