Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.
Physical description It is a slender, tropical, parasitic plant which grows by the seashores of the Asia-Pacific. The plant scrambles over bushes and trees. The stems are pale green, succulent, soft, thread-shaped and without leaves. The flowers are 2mm-3mm long, white, yellowish, and globose. The corolla consists of 6 sepals, where the 3 outer ones are smaller than the inner ones. There are 9 or 6 stamens, in 3 whorls, and the ovary is superior. The fruits are berries of about 5 mm diameter and enclosed in an enlarged, succulent, pale and persistent corolla (Fig. 19).
The perianth is wanting or moderately 3-lobed. The andrecium consists of 1-3 stamens connate into a mass. The anthers are1-2-celled, and open lengthwise. The gynecium comprises of a single carpel. The stigma is sessile, the style is short, and the ovule is solitary and orthotropous. The fruits are small, and ovoid or globose berries.
Flowers are sessile, in connate pairs of male and female with small bracts. The male flower shows a short stamen, the anther of which is 4-celled. The ovary is 1-celled and contains a single ovule. The style is short and the stigma is subsessile and truncate. The fruits are bright red, succulent, glossy, globose, apiculate, and 5 mm diameter berries (Fig. 24).
Physical description It is a spiny shrub of China and Japan which grows to a height of 1 m. The plant is often cultivated to decorate gardens and is even made into bonsais. Leaves simple, without stipules, in groups, and sessile. The blade is spathulate, 1 cm-4cm x 5mm-1 cm, and reddish or green. The margin is slightly wavy and recurved. The secondary nerves are indistinct. The flowers are solitary, axillary and showy. The calyx comprises of 3 triangular sepals. The corolla comprises of 4 series of petals. The andrecium comprises of 6 stamens. The gynecium consists of a single-celled ovary. The fruits are ovoid, with red berries attached to the slender pedicels (Fig. 36).
Chloroquine Take this drug with food or milk. Avoid foods that acidify the urine (cranberries, plums, prunes, meats, cheeses, eggs, fish, and grains). This drug may cause diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach pain, or vomiting. Notify the primary health care provider if these symptoms become pronounced. Chloroquine may cause a yellow or brownish discoloration to the urine this is normal and will go away when the drug therapy is discontinued. Notify the primary health care provider if any of the following occur
Physical description The family Flacourtiaceae consists of 85 genera and more than 800 species of tropical trees or shrubs. The leaves are simple, alternate, and pellucid-dotted or lined, and the stipules are often deciduous. The flowers are dioecious or polygamous, and often hypogynous. The calyx comprises of 3-15 sepals which are free, imbricate and alternate with the petals. The corolla comprises of 3-15 petals which are free, imbricate, and occasionally not distinguishable from the sepals. The andrecium consists of several stamens arranged in bundles opposite to the petals. The anthers are 2-celled and open by longitudinal slits. The gynecium consists of 2-10 carpels forming a compound, superior, and single-celled ovary containing 2 to several ovules. The ovules are anatropous to amphitropous or orthotropous, and are attached to parietal placentas. The styles are free or united to varying degrees, and the stigmas are distinct. The fruits are berries, or capsules or drupes. The...
Physical description It is a small tree found in Southeast Asia and China. The stems are glabrous. Leaves simple, rhomboid, 2.5cm-3.5cm, and obscurely serrate. The flowers are dioecious and arranged in axillary short cymes. The male flowers are 3 mm long, comprise of 5 imbricate sepals and several stamens. The fruits are globose berries containing several seeds.
Oxygenated A5-and A7-steroids (cucur-bitacins), piperidine alkaloids and penta-cyclic triterpenoid saponins. The leaves are simple, alternate and without stipules. The blade is often palmately lobed, rugose, and the petiole includes a crescent or ring of asymmetrical vascular bundles. The flowers are axillary, showy, unisexual and actinomorphic. The calyx is tubular, and the corolla is tubular or comprises of free petals. The andrecium consists of several stamens which are free or variously united, and 1 anther which is always single-celled. The gynecium consists of 3 carpels united to form a compound, unilocular inferior ovary containing several ovules attached to parietal placentas. The style is simple. The fruits are berries, often large and palatable, or capsules containing several flattened seeds without endosperm and often containing ribosome inactivating proteins which might hold pharmaceutical potential.
Conical, 2 cm long and produces 5 linear sepals. The corolla is showy, whitish, and consists of 5 orbiculate and very thin 3cm long petals. The andrecium consists of 3 stamens which are connate and included. The ovary is oblong and pubescent and encloses several ovules which are attached to parietal placentas, the style is short and produces upward 3-bifid stigmatic lobes. The fruits are 30 cm long, flask-shaped berries with a 20 cm long neck. The seeds are numerous, 1.6cm-2cm, white, compressed, and with marginal grooves. Although bitter, the young fruits, flowers and shoots are eaten. Fruits that have ripen are used to make floats, bottles and ladles (Fig. 113).
Physical description It is a slender annual climber cultivated in the tropical regions for its edible berries. The stems are hairy and 1 mm-2 mm in diameter. Leaves simple, alternate and without stipules. The petiole is 1 cm-2 cm long and hairy. The tendrils are opposite the leaves, and 1 cm-6 cm long. The blade is very thin, mottled with very small blackish spots below, hairy, 3.4 cm x 3.5 cm-2.9 cm x 3.7 cm and deeply 5-7-lobed. The nerves are sunken above, flat below and hairy. The margin is laxly toothed. The flowers are axillary, solitary, yellow and attached to 4cm-10cm long pedicels where small bracts are found at or below the middle. The calyx is campanulate, 5-lobed, hairy and 8 mm-10 mm long. The calyx lobes are 5mm-6mm long, elliptic and acute. The corolla is irregular and yellowish and consists of 5, 1.6cm-3cm long petals which are free, showily veined, hairy and rotate. The andrecium comprises of 3 stamens which are condu-plicate. The ovary is fusiform and muricate, and...
Physical description It is a climber found in Japan, Korea and China. The tendrils are 2-5-fid. Leaves simple, exstipulateand spiral. The blade is broad ovate to orbiculate, remotely dentate or 3-7-lobed, cordate at the base, pilose and punctuate on both sides. The inflorescences are axillary 10cm-20cm long racemes. The bracts are obovate or ovate, and 2 cm-2.5 cm long. The flowers are ephemeral and dirty white. The corolla consists of 5 petals which are fringed at the apex. The fruits are oblong, 9cm-10cm, orange-yellow berries containing several ovate or oblong,1.1 cm-1.4cm x 8mm-9 mm light brown seeds.
Physical description The family Ebenaceae consists of 5 genera and about 450 species of tropical timbers and shrubs. The wood of Ebenaceae is very dense, hard and reddish. The wood contains notably 1,4 naphthoquinones (plumbagin and 7 - methyljuglone) that darken upon light exposure. Other notorious secondary metabolites of Ebenaceae are a series of pentacyclic triterpenes of the ursane and oleanane type, and some lignans. The leaves of Ebenaceae are simple, leathery, alternate and without stipules. The flowers are small, regular, hypogynous, and principally unisexual (dioecious). The calyx is 3-7-lobed, persistent, and often vestigial in fruits. The corolla is sympetalous, 3-7-lobed. The stamens are attached to the base of the corolla tube, and are usually twice as many as the corolla lobes. The gynecium consists of 2-10 carpels, forming a compound, plurilocular ovary containing several ovules attached to axile placentas. The fruits are very characteristic juicy or leathery berries...
There are of course some notable exceptions. If you happen to have a refrigerator stockpiled with wild berries, fish and wild game meat, and keep chipmunks and snakes as pets then you're in luck. But no wild corn ever looked like that, bell peppers shouldn't look like bells, and no naturally occurring animal ever looked like the modern chicken or dairy cow. To your credit, most of you realize that Rover
8.2.6 Hawthorn Berries in CHF Although clinical research has focused on hawthorn preparations from leaves and flowers, some trials on berries are available and have been summarized within a systematic review 14 . This review showed that three clinical trials examined pharmacological aspects referring to orthostatic dysregulation and two were on chronic heart failure NYHA II, but only one of them with a monopreparation. This RCT evaluated the efficacy and safety of a hydroethanolic extract of hawthorn berries (n 143 30 drops 3 times daily for 8 weeks). The efficacy analysis in the ITT population showed a significant improvement in the exercise tolerance of 8.3 W in the verum group vs. placebo ( 95 CI -16.3 to -0.3 p 0.045), which was confirmed in the PP population 62 . It is noteworthy that in this trial standard medication to treat chronic heart failure was not allowed. The safety analysis revealed that only mild to moderate adverse events occurred and were statistically insignificant...
Cranberry juice has long been recommended for use in treating and preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs). Clinical studies have confirmed that cranberry juice is beneficial to individuals with frequent UTIs. Cranberries inhibit bacteria from attaching to the walls of the urinary tract and prevent certain bacteria from forming dental plaque in the mouth. Cranberry juice is safe for use as a food and for urinary tract health. Cranberry juice and capsules have no contraindications, no known adverse reactions, and no drug interactions. The recommended dosage is 9 to 15 capsules a day (400-500 mg d) or 4 to 8 ounces of juice per day. (See Chap. 6 for more information.)
Celastraceae are simple, often glossy and serrate, alternate or opposite, and with or without stipules. The inflorescences are terminal or axillary cymes. The flowers are hermaphrodite, small, actinomorphic, greenish or white, hypogy-nous and succulent. The perianth comprises of 5 sepals and 5 petals which are small, imbricate or rarely valvate. The andrecium consists of 5 stamens which are alternate with the petals, and inserted in or below the margin of a conspicuous nectary disc. The anthers are tetrasporangiate and dithecal. The gynecium consists of 2-5 carpels forming a superior, 2-5-locular ovary. The styles are terminal, short and capitate, and develop a 2-5-lobed stigma. The fruits are capsules, samaras, berries or drupes.
Physical description The family Hippocrateaceae consists of the genera Hippocratea (100 species) and Salacia (200 species). Hippocrateaceae are tannif-erous, tropical shrubs or climbers closely allied to the Celastraceae. The leaves of Hippocrateaceae are mostly opposite and simple and the stipules small or absent. The inflorescences are cymose. The flowers are small, hermaphrodite and actinomorphic. The calyx is small, and consists of 5 imbricate sepals. The corolla comprises of 5 petals which are imbricate or valvate. A cupular, conical or expanded nectary disk is present. The andrecium comprises of mostly 3 stamens which alternate with the petals. The gynecium consists of 3 carpels united to form a compound, superior, trilocular and somewhat triangular ovary containing 2-10 ovule per locule which are attached to axile placentas. The style is subulate or short and mostly 3-fid. The fruit are drupes, berries, or capsules. The seeds are compressed and often winged or angular.
The flowers are actinomorphic and hermaphrodite or not. The inflorescences are cymose, fasciculate or seldom solitary. The calyx comprises of 4 sepals which are small and imbricate. The corolla consists of 4 petals which are imbricate or valvate and shortly connate at the base. The andrecium comprises of 4 stamens which are alternate with the petals, free and with dithecal and tetrasporangiate anthers opening by longitudinal slits. The gynecium consists of 4-6 carpels united to from a compound, superior ovary with as many locules as carpels, each locule containing 1 or 2 pendulous ovules. The style is terminal and short or indistinct. The fruits are berries containing as many stones as carpels, and they are poisonous.
Dithecal, with free filaments which are hairy and borne on the corolla. The gynecium consists of 2-5 carpels united to form a compound, mostly single-locular ovary, containing a pair of pendulous ovules from near the top of the ovary. The style is short. The fruits are berries.
Physical description The family Dichapetalaceae is a small group of 3 genera and about 235 species of shrubs and woody climbers, principally found in Africa and known to produce fluoroacetic acid and pyridine alkaloids. The largest genera of Dichapetalaceae is the genus Dichapetalum with 200 plant species. The leaves are simple, alternate, stipulate and glandular. The inflorescences are cymes. The flowers are perfect, regular, hypogynous and characteristically fluffy and 5-merous. The stamens alternate with the petals. The anthers are dithecal and open longitudinally. The gynecium consists of 2-3 carpels united into a compound 2-3-locular ovary, each locule containing a pair of apical-axile, pendulous, and anatropous ovules. The style is simple. The fruits are berries containing a few seeds.
Physical description The family Burseraceae consists of about 20 genera and 600 species of resinous and dioecious tropical trees known to produce several types of triterpenes, lignans, and aromatic and occasionally irritating gum-resins. The leaves of Burseraceae are alternate or spiral, pinnately compound and seldom stipulated. The folioles are often falcate, glandular, leathery, dark green and glossy. The flowers are regular, hypogynous, small, often unisexual and 5-merous. The sepals and petals are imbricate the sepals are connate below and the petals are free. The stamens are characteristically bicyclical and their filaments are free and borne within a well-developed nectary disc. The anthers are tetrasporangiate, dithecal and open by longitudinal slits. The gynecium comprises of 3-5 carpels joining to form a compound, plurilocular ovary with a terminal style and a capitate stigma. Each locule comprises of a pair of pendulous and epitropous ovules, attached to axil placentas. The...
The inflorescence are axillary racemes of numerous tiny flowers. The calyx comprises of 3-5 valvate sepals. The corolla comprises of 3-5 petals alternate with the sepals. The andrecium is characteristically tubular and comprises of 6-10 stamens, the anthers of which are tetrasporangiate and dithecal. The gynecium consists of 2-5 carpels joining to form a compound, plurilocular ovary, with each locule containing a pair of ovules attached to axil placenta. The fruits are septicidal or loculicidal capsules that are occasionally berries or drupes, containing several seeds which are often winged.
Informal Names Bandits, Beiruts, Blou Bulle, Blue Bulls, Drunken Monkey, Ew-ings, Flamingos, Flowers, Four Strokes, Genuines, Germans, Golfsticks, Humbles, Knoppies, Lizards, Loss of Memory, Love Drug, Ludes, Luds, Lula, Magwheels, Mandies, Mind Benders (with heroin), Pressouts, Pupumala, Q, Randy Mandies, 714, Shiny Tops, Sopes, Sporos, Strawberries, Wagon Wheels, White Pipe (Mandrax and marijuana)
Physical description The family Loganiaceae consists of about 20 genera and 500 species of tropical trees, shrubs or climbers known to abound with iridoid glycosides and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, formed by the condensation of tryptamine and secologanin (an iridoid). The leaves of Logani-aceae are simple, opposite, entire, and stipulate. The stipules are interpetiolar. The flowers are showy, often solitary, perfect, and regular. The calyx comprises of 4-5 connate sepals. The corolla is tubular and develops 5 (or more) imbricate, convolute or valvate lobes. The andrecium comprises of as many stamens as, and alternate with, the corolla lobes the anthers are dithecal, tetrasporangiate, and open by longitudinal slits. The gynecium consists of 2-3 carpels, forming a 2-3-locular superior ovary, with each locule containing several ovules attached to axil placentas. The fruits are capsular, berries, or drupes.
Andrecium consists of 4 stamens, the anthers of which are dithecal, tetraspo-rangiate and open by longitudinal slits. The filaments are attached to the corolla and alternate with the lobes. The gynecium consists of a pair of 2 carpels united to form a 4 locular ovary, with each locule enclosing a single ovule attached to the axile placentas. The fruits are berries or capsular.
Prunus Virginiana is a thicket-forming erect shrub or small tree. Its stems are numerous and slender, branching from the base or with main branches upright and spreading, producing leaves that open green, then Round red as they mature. Heights vary considerably according to variety and site quality, ranging from 3' to 19'. Perfect white flowers are borne on leafy twigs during the summer, becoming small cherry-like berries. The cherries each contain a small stone. The Chokecherry prefers to grow in sunny fields and open valleys.
Opposite, often lobed or toothed, occasionally asymmetrical, the smaller one is stipule-shaped and without stipules.The flowers are perfect, tubular, usually zygomorphic, often large and showy, and often solitary in the axil of the leaves. The calyx comprises of 5 sepals which are free or united into a lobed tube. The corolla consists of 5 petals united in a bilabiate tube. The andrecium comprises of 4 stamens arranged in asymmetrical pairs attached to the corolla tube and alternate with the lobes. 1-3 staminodes are often present in place of 1-3 stamens. The gynecium consists of a pair of carpels forming a compound that is superior or inferior single-locular ovary, each locule containing several ovules attached to 2 parietal placentas. The stigma is bilobed. The fruits are loculicidal or scepticidal capsules or berries containing several small seeds.
Numerous herbal diuretics are available as over-the-counter (OTC) products. Most plants and herbal extracts available as OTC diuretics are nontoxic. However, most are either ineffective or no more effective than caffeine. The following are selected herbals reported to possess diuretic activity celery, chicory, sassafras, juniper berries, St. John's wort, foxglove, horsetail, licorice, dandelion, digitalis purpurea, ephedra, hibiscus, parsley, and elderberry. Diuretic teas such as juniper berries and shave grass or horsetail are contraindicated. Juniper berries have been associated with renal damage, and horsetail contains severely toxic compounds. Teas with ephedrine should be avoided, especially by individuals with hypertension.
Poison Chelidonine Dosage 6-8 Berries This is an erect shrub, 2' to 4' tall. It grows many slender branches with reddish brown, shredded bark. The leaves are thin and oval, usually 2 to 4 long. The beautiful pink-white flowers are small, dense, and cluster at the branch tips. They have a fat bell-shape and have a hairy inside. The berries are white, waxy, oval to round and hang in drupes, about 5 long with 2 seeds. It often forms thickets from suckers in open woods, thickets, and valley slopes, being most abundant in dry areas.
The shores and on rocky shore side cliffs, often forming dense thickets which grows to a height of 6 m. The stems are succulent, glabrous and smooth. Leaves simple, sessile, spiral and without stipules. The blade is succulent, glossy, glabrous, spathu-late and 20.5 cm x 6.5cm-23.5cm x 7.8 cm. Tufts of silky white hairs are present at the base of the leaves. The inflorescences are axillary dichotomous cymes which are 7cm-9cm long. The flowers are showy, whitish and 1.6cm-1.8cm long. The calyx is conical, 2mm x 7 mm, hairy and produces 5 linear lobes of about 2.5mm long. The corolla is characteristically hemi-tubular, 1cm-1.3cm long and produces 5 valvate lobes. The andrecium consists of 5 stamens. The style is 2 cm long. The fruits are globose, large, greenish-white, lobed, succulent berries, crowned with the 5 calyx lobes and containing rough and bony stones (Figs. 340 & 341).
Physical description It is a bush of Malaysian jungle paths. Leaves simple, 5cm-13cm x 15cm-25cm, decussate and stipulate. The stipules are interpetiolar. The petiole is 3cm long. The blade is elliptic, oblong, acuminate showing approximately 9 pairs of secondary nerves. The flowers are showy, 5 cm in diameter and arranged in terminal inflorescences. The calyx consists of 5 narrow sepals that are 1 cm long. The corolla is red, orange or yellow, swollen near the throat and star-shaped. The fruits are oblong berries (Fig. 350).
Triterpenoid saponins, phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoid glycosides. The leaves in this family are simple, opposite, entirely or deeply divided and without stipules. The flowers are hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, and epigynous. The inflorescences are cymose. The calyx is 4-5-merous, adnate to the ovary and accrescent in fruits. The corolla is tubular and develops 2-5 lobes which are imbricate or valvate. The stamens are attached to the corolla tube and alternate with the corolla lobes. The anthers are dorsifixed, versatile and open by longitudinal slits. The gynecium consists of 2-8 carpels forming a compound and inferior ovary containing 2-8 locules, containing several ovules attached to axil placentas. The style is terminal and often long with a capitate or lobed stigma. The fruits are capsular, berries or drupes.
Other pharmacological properties Ursolic acid isolated from the aerial parts of Viburnum jucundum Morton is cytotoxic towards 3 human cancer cell lines cultured in vitro (Rios MY et al., 2001). A number of water-soluble polysac-charides isolated from the berries Viburnum opulus enhance phagocytosis
Physical description The Family Flagellariaceae consists of the single genus Flagellaria, with 3 species of climbers native to tropical regions and known to produce cyanogenetic glycosides. The leaves are alternate, simple, characterized by a stoloniferous apex tip. The inflorescences are terminal panicles. The flowers are small, sessile, perfect, regular, trimerous and hypogynous.The perianth consists of 6 tepals in 2 cycles. The andrecium consists of 6 stamens which are free. The anthers are basixified, sagitate, tetrasporangiate, dithecal and open by longitudinal slits. The gynecium comprises of 3 carpels united to form a compound, superior, 3-locular ovary with each locule containing a single ovule attached to an axile placenta. The styles are free or connate. The fruits are small drupes or berries. Flagellaria indica L. is quite often used to wash the hair and promote hair growth in the Asia-pacific, on a probable account of its hair-shaped tendrils. The present state of...
In 14 cases of accidental exposure to Phoradendron flavescens (Phoradendron serotinum, American mistletoe) there were no symptoms, but there was one death from intentional ingestion of an unknown amount of an elixir brewed from the berries (1). In 92 patients aged 4 months to 42 years (median 2 years), 14 were symptomatic, 11 related to mistletoe exposure. All the symptomatic cases had onset of symptoms within 6 hours. The symptoms included gastrointestinal upsets (n 6), mild drowsiness (n 2), eye irritation (n 1), ataxia (n 1), and seizures (n 1). Treatment included gastrointestinal decontamination in 54 patients, ocular irrigation in one, and an intravenous benzodiazepine in one decontamination did not affect the outcome. The amount ingested ranged from one berry or leaf to more than 20 berries or five leaves. Eight of ten patients who had taken at least five berries were symptom-free. Of 11 patients who took only leaves (range 1-5 leaves), three had gastrointestinal upsets. There...
Physical description The family Taccaceae consists of the genus Tacca with approximately 10 species, pantropical in distribution, but best developed in Southeast Asia and Polynesia. These are rhizomatous herbs with long petiolate and basal leaves, known to accumulate raphides of calcium oxalate. The flowers are borne in an involucrate, cymose umbel at the apex stems, epigynous, and trimerous. The perianth comprises of 6 tepals in 2 whorls the andrecium consists of 2 whorls of 3 stamens. The gynecium consists of 3 carpels united to form a compound, unilocular, 6-ribbed inferior ovary with intruded parietal placentas, where several ovules are attached. The fruits are berries.
Physical description It is a herb which grows in the mountain jungle paths of China Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, East India, Indonesia, Laos, West Malaysia, Burma, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The rhizomes are cylindrical and thick. Leaves the blade is oblong-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 50 cm-5 cm x 18.5cm-21cm. The base is cuneate, the apex is acuminate or caudate. The scape is 55 cm long. The involucral bracts are 4, 2 outer sessile, narrowly deltoid-ovate and 2 inner long petiolate, spatulate and thin. The perianth is purplish black tubular, 1 cm-2 cm long and comprises of 6 in 2 whorls, the outer ones narrowly oblong and the inner ones are broadly obo-vate. The filaments are spatulate at the apex. The style is short and the stigma deeply 3-lobed. The fruits are berries which are narrowly ellipsoid, approximately 2cm long, fleshy, 6-ridged, with persistent perianth lobes (Figs. 416 & 417).
Perfect, cymose or packed in globose spikes. The calyx is small, consisting of 4-5 lobes adnate to the ovary. The corolla is tubular, regular, and often white consists of 3-5 connate, contorted, imbricate or valvate lobes. The andrecium consists of 4-5 stamens attached to the edge of the corolla, and alternate with the corolla lobes. The anthers are 2-celled and open in terms of length. The gynecium consists of a pair of carpels united into an inferior, 2 or plurilocular ovary with each locule containing a single or several ovules attached to axile placentas. The stigma is bifid, showy and protruding. The fruits are capsules, berries, or drupes often crowned at the top by the calyx.
Physical description The family Myrsinaceae consists of 30 genera and approximately 1000 species of tropical trees, shrubs and herbs abounding with 1, 4-benzoquinones and saponins. The bark is smooth or lenticelled. The leaves in Myrsinaceae are simple, alternate, crenate, fleshy, glossy, and characteristically gland-dotted beneath the blade. The flowers are small, perfect, hypogynous or half epigynous sympetalous, and 5-merous. The calyx consists of 4-5 sepals which are free or connate at the base. The corolla is tubular or rotate. The andrecium consists of 5 stamens adnate to the corolla tube and opposite the petals. The gynecium consists of 3-5 carpels forming a compound single-celled and superior ovary developing upwards into a short style, and containing a few or numerous ovules attached to a free central placenta. The fruits are berries or drupes.
Physical description The family Berberidaceae consists of about 13 genera and 650 species of woody herbs, shrubs and treelets which are widespread in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The genus Berberis is by far the largest genus with some 500 species. The chemical weapons used here are mainly isoquinoline (berberine) alkaloids, occasionally quinolizidine alkaloids, and lignans and triterpenoid saponins. The stems are often woody and show typical broad medullary rays in transversal section. The leaves are simple or compound, alternate and without stipules. The flowers are hermaphrodite, hypogynous, and mostly trimerous. The sepals and petals are similar. The perianth consists of 2 series of sepals, and 4 series of petals. The andrecium consists of 6 stamens facing the petals, with short filaments, and with tetraspo-rangiate anthers which are dithecal and open by valves. The gynecium comprises of a single carpel which encloses a few anatropous ovules. The fruits are...
Informal Names Black Cherry, Deadly Nightshade, Death's Herb, Devil's Cherries, Devil's Herb, Divale, Dwale, Dwayberry, Great Morel, Love Apple, Murderer's Berry, Naughty Man's Cherries, Poison Black Cherry, Sleeping Nightshade, Sorcerers Berries, Sorcerer's Cherry, Witch's Berry Type Hallucinogen. See page 25 Federal Schedule Listing Unlisted as natural product Uses. Belladonna bushes thrive in the United States, Europe, North Africa, and Southeast Asia. Some persons seeking a hallucinogenic effect eat the berries. Leaves and roots are used medically. The wood has an even higher drug content but does not seem to be exploited medically. The plant grows wild and has also been cultivated on a commercial scale for the pharmaceutical industry. Drugs found in the plant include atropine, hyoscyamine, and sco-polamine, all of which are also found in jimson weed and European mandrake. Drawbacks. Dosage with the natural product belladonna is so risky that persons are routinely advised to use...
Leave very large, peltate and connate for one tenth of its length. The spathe is pediceled. The base is convoluted and Fig. 385. Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) G. Don. constricted above. The spadix develops cylindrical appendages and includes a large male portion and a short female portion. The ovary is oblong. The style and stigma are globose. The fruits are berries with large seeds (Fig. 385).
Strand South African colloquial term for wild growing cannabis (dagga). Strang German colloquial term for a row of injection marks on the arm. Strascogesic Amfetamine sulfate. Strassengramm 1. German colloquial term for a quantity of drugs, usually about 0.8 gram. 2. German colloquial term for a packet of an adulterated preparation of drugs. Stratium Medazepam. Straw 1. Colloquial term for a marijuana cigarette. 2. Singaporean colloquial term for a plastic drinking straw filled with heroin. Straw process Colloquial term for a metod of processing poppy straw. Strawberries 1. Colloquial term for depressant. 2. Colloquial term for LSD. Strawberry 1. Colloquial term for a small red LSD tablet. 2. Colloquial term for female who trades sex for crack or money to buy crack.
Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Lauraceae are Laurus nobilis L. (sweet bay laurel), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees (cinnamon), Cinnamo-mum camphora (L.) T. Nees & Eberm. (camphor), Persea americana Miller (avocado), Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras oil), Umbellularia cal-ifornica (California bay laurel), Persea nanmu Oliv. (nan-mu wood), Nectan-dra rodiaei Schk. (green-heart wood), Eusideroxylon zwageri (ironwood) and Ocotea bullata E. Mey.The dried ripe berries of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauri Fructus Swiss Pharmacopoeia 1934) containing about 1 of volatile oil and 25 of fixed oil were used to promote digestion, menstruation and urination.
Physical description The family Capparaceae or Capparidaceae consists of about 45 genera and about 800 species of treelets, shrubs and herbs, which are principally xerophytic, pungent, tropical and subtropical, containing isothiocyanates (mustard oils), flavonoids, and occasionally pyrrolidine alkaloids. In this family, the leaves are alternate, opposite, simple or trifoliate or often pal-mately compound. The stipules are absent or very small. The flowers are bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous, axillary or terminal, solitary or in racemes. During plant collection, Capparales are easily recognizable by an elongated receptacle called gynophore or androgynophore. The calyx consists of 2-6 free, imbricate or valvate sepals, in 2 opposite, decussate pairs, or partially united, and distinct or connate below. The corolla comprises of up to 6 petals. The andrecium is often showy, and consists of several stamens initiated in a centrifugal sequence, with 2-celled and longitudinally dehiscent...
Physical description It is a treelet found in the lowland rainforests of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Leaves simple and deeply pinnately lobed. The petiole is 15 cm long and lenticelled, and the mature blade is 30 cm x 13cm-80cm x 26 cm. The inflorescences are 15 cm long panicles of several 2.5 mm long flowers. The fruits are dirty white berries which are 3.5 cm x 2.5cm-1.5cm x 2 cm, slightly asymmetric, ovoid. The seeds are broad, elliptic, 5-grooved and deeply ruminate (Fig. 177).
2.5cm-6cm, simple, decussate and stipulate. The petiole is short and thick. The blade is ovate to elliptic, extremely thick and lanceolate. The flowers are grouped in small and axillary clusters. The calyx is cup-shaped. The corolla consists of a short tube hairy inside and is 4-lobed. The lobes are half as long as the tube itself. The fruits are orangy-red pulpy berries (Fig. 346). above the middle, while tapering at the base and marked at the apex with a sharp tip. The flowers are sessile and enclosed in narrow and hairy bracts. The corolla is tubular white and 4-lobed. The fruits are glossy, 4 mm blue berries (Fig. 347).
The nectary disc is cushion-shaped, central in the male flower and epigynous in female flowers. The gynecium consists of 2-5 carpels united to form a compound, inferior ovary which comprises of as many locules as carpels. Each locule encloses a single ovule. The style is simple or lobed. The fruits are drupes or berries, containing a single 1-5 locular, longitudinally grooved stone.
A good substrate can be made up of woody debris, chopped corncobs and cornstalks, stalks of garden vegetables, vines of berries or grapes. When the base components are disproportionately too large or small, without connective particles, then colonization by the mushroom mycelium is hindered.
Physical description It is a climbing shrub which grows in the rainforests of Malaysia. The stems are lenticelled and glabrous. Leaves simple, subopposite and without stipules. The petiole is channeled above and 6mm-8mm x 1.75 mm-2 mm long. The blade is rigid, elliptic-obovate, 18.5 cm-20.5 cmx6.7 cm-9.2 cm.The apex of the blade is apiculate and the base acute. The margin is recurved and somewhat wavy. The midrib is raised above and below. The blade shows 7-10 pairs of secondary nerves raised on both surfaces. The flowers are 2.5 mm long, pink and cauliflorous. The fruits are globose, 3.5 cm diameter berries containing several 3-lobed seeds of 2 cm length (Fig. 189).
Erythroxylum coca Latin name for the most commonly cultivated species of the coca bush, also called Bolivian coca or Huanaco. It has been cultivated for thousands of years for its leaves rich in cocaine and is not found wild, The bush has big oval darkgreen leaves, the flowers are yellow-white, it has small red berries.
Erythroxylum coca, tropical shrub, of the family Erythroxylaceae, the leaves of which are the source of the drug cocaine (q.v.). The plant, cultivated in Africa, northern South America, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan, grows about 2.4 m (8 feet) tall. The branches are straight, and the lively green leaves are thin, opaque, oval, and more or less tapering at the extremities. A marked characteristic of the leaf is an areolated portion bounded by two longitudinal curved lines, one on each side of the midrib, and more conspicuous on the under face of the leaf. The flowers are small and disposed in little clusters on short stalks the corolla is composed of five yellowish white petals, the anthers are heart-shaped, and the pistil consists of three carpels united to form a three-chambered ovary. The flowers are succeeded by red berries.
Physical description It is an erect herb which grows to a height of 1 m tall in shady and wet spots of the Asia-Pacific. Leaves the petiole is channeled and 8 cm-12 cm long. The blade is 40cm-60cm x 6cm-9.5cm, soft and shows 6-10 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are axillary pediceled heads each head consists of 10 glossy berries which are bright-orange when ripe. The berries are 1.8 cm x 5 mm, marked at the apex by a tiny disk. The pedicel is 7cm long (Fig. 384).
Dosage 1-3 Berries, 2oz(56G) Sap leaf and another smaller above that. Sometimes there is a third. The flowers are green, purple and yellow. Blooms first appear in mid spring and continue into late spring. The berries are actually dark blue exposed seeds resembling berries and taste very sweet. A typical plant will spread into a clump 5' in diameter into a handsome bush throughout spring, summer and fall.
Leaves hard, dark green and shiny. The blade is lanceolate, broadest at the middle and tapering, hairy or not, 90 cm x 15 cm, occasionally purple in the below, with several longitudinal ribs. The flowers are bright yellow, 1.5 cm long and arranged in scapose umbels supported by spathe-shaped bracts and 30cm-60cm long stems. The perianth is tubular and consists of 6 tepals. The andrecium consists of 6 stamens. The gynecium consists of a 2-celled ovary. The fruits are edible, sweet, whitish, beaked and hairy berries of 2.5 cm long.
Physical description The family Pittosporaceae consists of 9 genera and 200 species of shrubs and small trees that are widely distributed in the tropical and warm temperate parts of the world, especially in Australia. The array of chemical repellents in Pittosporaceae is broad and includes triter-penoid saponins, essential oils, polyacetylenic fatty acids, and proantho-cyanins. About 150 species of Pittosoraceae belong to the single genus Pittosporum. The leaves of Pittosporaceae are simple, alternate, leathery, glossy, and without stipules. The inflorescences are axillary, cymose or racemose. The flowers are perfect, regular, hypogynous and pentamerous. The stamens alternate with the petals. The gynecium consists of 2-5 carpels united to form a compound, unilocular ovary with a single style and a capitate stigma. The ovary encloses numerous ovules attached to parietal placentas. The fruits are dehiscent capsules or berries. The seeds are often embedded in a viscous pulp and include a...
Physical description It is a small rhizomatous herb which grows in the mountain zone, ranging from Nepal to Manchuria, and from eastern Siberia to Korea. The stems are pitted. Leaves palmately lobed and consisting of 5 folioles which are slightly crenate. The flowers are white, small and arranged in an umbel. The fruits are red glossy berries (Fig. 248). Uses Ginseng is said to have been used as a medicine in China and Tibet since ancient times (2000 B. C.-3000 B. C.). Its use was formerly reserved for emperors, their households and conferred by imperial favor upon high and useful officers. The plant was collected at night, as the berries reflect moonlight. The name ginseng comes from jen shen which means human plant . Other names are t'u ching spirit of the ground shen ts'ao divine plant and t'u ching terrestrial essence. The legend says that during the Sui dynasty (581-601 A. D.), at Shantang in China, human-shaped roots were systematically found in haunted places. Chinese people...
Physical description The family Loranthaceae consists of about 70 genera and 700 species of tanniferous and parasitic plants known to produce phenolic acids, lignans, triterpenes, cyclitols, steroids and flavonoids glycosides (quercitrin), choline, tyramine, toxic polypeptides (viscotoxins) and glycoproteins (lectins). The leaves of Loranthaceae are simple, mostly opposite or whorled, sometimes reduced to scales, and without stipules.The blade is often characteristically somewhat spongy and glaucous, and often without distinct secondary nerves. The flowers are actinomorphic, uni-or bisexual, and often brightly colored. The calyx is adnate to the ovary, and annular or cupular. The petals are free or united into a tube, and often split down one side. The stamens are as numerous as the petals and inserted at the base of the corolla. The anthers are 2-locular. The gynecium consists of 3-4 carpels forming a compound, unilocular and inferior ovary containing 4-12 ovules attached to a free...
The perianth is present in bisexual flowers and consists of 4-6 lobes. The andrecium is hypogenous and consists of 2-8 stamens opposite the perianth lobes. The ovary is superior or immersed in the spadix and 1-several locular. The style and placentation are variously organized. The fruits are berries containing 1-several seeds embedded in a copious endosperm.
Physical description It is a small woody shrub native to Japan. The plant is ornamental in temperate gardens. The stems are terete and glabrous. Leaves consist of 2 pairs of folioles and a terminal one. Some folioles are pinnate, and the terminal one is 3-lobed at the apex. The folioles are 5cm-10cm long, very thin, sessile, asymmetric and acute at the apex. Each foliole shows 2-3 pairs of secondary nerves. The margin of the blade is wavy or toothed at the apex. The inflorescences are axillary panicles of about 20 cm long. The fruits are blackish-blue berries of about 7 mm in diameter (Fig. 37).
The inner bark is brown and the sap, yellow. The stems are smooth and glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite and joined together to form an ochrea, which usually splits into a pair of axillary scales. The petiole is 1.25cm-2cm long. The blade is elliptic, thinly coriaceous, and 5cm-13cm x 2cm-5.5cm. The apex is pointed, and the base is acute.The margin is entire and recurved, the midrib is raised on both surfaces, and the blade shows 8-10 pairs of secondary nerves which are visible from underneath only. The inflorescences are axillary dichotomous cymes, 6.5cm-7cm long. The flowers are axillary, fragrant, 2 cm wide, and creamy white. The calyx is 5 mm long and comprises of 5 broad and translucent lobes. The corolla tube is 8mm-1 cm long and 5-lobed. The andrecium consists of 5 stamens with very thin filaments. The style is 2 cm long. The fruits are 8 mm long, orange and glossy berries (Fig. 253).
Physical description It is a silky shrubby climber of the seashore of Malaysia and Indonesia. Leaves simple, without stipules and lanceolate. The petiole is 1.2 cm long. The blade is acuminate at the apex and tapering at the base, slightly coriaceous and overall silky. The flowers are purple, cymose and silky. The calyx comprises of 5 sepals which are 5 mm long, elliptic blunt and silky. The corolla is 7 cm long, white with a pink edge and hairy outside. The andrecium consists of 5 included stamens. A nectary disc is present. The ovary is 4-locular, with each locule containing a single ovule. The style is filiform and the stigma is globose. The fruits are dry, round and 2-celled berries with a red pulp (Fig. 291).
Physical description It is a shrubby cactus which grows to a height of 2 m. It is native to Central America. The plant is ornamental and cultivated as such throughout the tropics. The stems are 30cm-40cm x 15cm-20cm, broadly obovate, undulate, succulent, spiny and bluish. The leaves are 3.8 mm long, pale green, and conical. The areoles are large, and bear 4-6, 2.5cm-3.8cm prickles each. There are several 1.3cm long yellowish glochidia. The flowers are 7.5 cm long, yellow, and tinged with orange. The perianth is rotate and reddish. The stamens are numerous and longer than the corolla. The style is stout, and there are 5-8 erect stigmas. The fruits consist of pyriform berries, which are truncate, depressed at the apex, deep reddish-purple when ripe and bearing tiny tufts of glochidia Fig. 58(a) .
Physical description It is a monoecious climber cultivated in many warm countries for its edible berries. The stems are 5-angled, hairy and rigid. Leaves simple, alternate and without stipules. The petiole is channeled, hairy and 7 mm-2 cm long. The tendrils are slender and 3-fid. The blade is papery, 5-lobed, 5 cm x 6cm-7cm x 8.5 cm, and mottled with white spots on the surface and hairy underneath. The nerves are flat above and raised on the underside of the blade and the tertiary nerves are indistinct. The male flowers are arranged in axillary, 12-20 flowered racemes of 10 cm-15 cm long. The calyx is hairy, 1.3 cm long and consists of lanceolate 1 cm long sepals. The corolla comprises of 5 petals of 2 cm long, and is somewhat hairy, obovate, and yellow with green veins. The andrecium consists of 3 stamens. The female flowers are solitary, in the same axil as the males on 5cm-10cm long pedicels and comprise of an ovary which is strongly ribbed. The fruits are smooth, 10-ribbed,...
Uses The ripe berries of Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. are acid and astringent, but rubbing them between the hands bruises the flesh and renders it sweet and palatable. In Indonesia, the sap expressed from young shoots is used to wash the eyes. In Malaysia, the juice expressed from the berries is ingested to stop diarrhea and dysentery. The sap expressed from the leaves is applied to inflamed eyelids. The powdered dried leaves are used to heal wounds. In the Philippines, a decoction of the roots is drunk to invigorate health after childbirth. The pharmacological properties of Flacourtia rukam Zoll. & Mor. are unknown til to date.
Physical description The family Solanaceae consists of about 85 genera and 2800 species of prickly herbs, shrubs, climbers or small trees, well represented in South America. Solanaceae are known to elaborate tropane alkaloids derived from ornithine, pyridine and steroidal alkaloids. The leaves of Solanaceae are alternate, simple, often soft, dull green and without stipules. The flowers are hermaphrodite and actinomorphic. The calyx is 4-6-lobed and persistent in fruit. The corolla is tubular, infundibuliform, showy, 5-lobed with the lobes folded, contor-tate or valvate. The andrecium consists of 5 stamens attached to the corolla, the anthers of which are 2-locular and open lengthwise or by apical pores. The gynecium consists of a pair of carpels united into a 2-locular ovary, with each locule containing several ovules attached axile placentas. The fruits are berries or capsular.
Physical description It is a small and evergreen rainforest shrub found in China and Taiwan. Leaves 4 cm-5.5 cm x 1.5cm-2cm and simple. The blade is oblong or lanceolate, and the apex of the blade acute. The margin is subentire or remotely serrate. The secondary nerves are indistinct. The flowers are arranged in axillary cymes. The fruits are globose, 4mm-5mm berries containing 4-5 pyrenes.
Physical description The family Clusiaceae, or Guttiferae, consists of 50 genera and 1200 species of tropical plants which are thought to have originated from the family Theaceae. These are trees, climbers or herbs, exuding a sticky yellow gum resin and often contain proanthocyanidins, tannins, and various sorts of phenolic substances including xanthones. The leaves are simple, without stipules, decussate or whorled, principally entire, and often showing long, thin and parallel secondary nerves. The petiole is often clasping and small. The flowers are often showy, fragrant, unisexual, regular and hypogynous, joined together in terminal and cymose inflorescences, or less often solitary and terminal. The sepals are free and overlapping, and there are 2-14 free, imbricate or convolute overlapping petals. The andrecium consists of limited trunk-bundles of stamens initiated in a centrifugal sequence, and the anthers open by longitudinal slits. The gynecium comprises of 1 to several carpels...
Alternate, principally palmately veined and often palmately lobed, and toothed, and have large stipules. The flowers are unisexual and irregular, and arranged in axillary, cymose, occasionally long-pedunculate inflorescences. The perianth consists of up to 10 petaloid tepals. The andrecium comprises of 4 or more stamens originating in a centripetal sequence. The gynecium consists of 3 carpels forming a compound, inferior, plurilocular ovary containing several ovules attached to axillary placentas and developing upwards into a distinct style. The fruits are loculicidal capsules, or berries containing several small seeds. The structures of the andrecium and gynecium in the family Begoniaceae are unusual for members of the Violales. However, one could say that cucur-bitacins justify the classification of Begoniaceae with the Cucurbitaceae and Datiscaceae in the order Violales, or at least their common Violales-Malvales ancestors.
Physical description It is a treelet of the lowland and the rainforests of the hills of the Asia-Pacific. Leaves simple, decussate and stipulate. The stipules are interpetiolar, narrowly triangular, cuspidate and 2mm-4mm long. A pair of 1 cm long prickles is present on the leaf axil. The blade is elliptic to ovate, 3cm-12cm x 1 cm-5cm, pointed at the apex and hairy below. The blade shows 4-9 pairs of secondary nerves. The inflorescences are terminal. The corolla is 2cm-5cm long, yellowish, 5-lobed with the lobes at1 cm-3cm long.The andrecium consists of 5 stamens which are longer than the corolla tube. The fruits are 1 cm-2cm long berries, embedded in the persistent calyx cup and containing 5 mm-7 mm of triangular seeds.
The morning after the ayahuasca experience, I noticed how unusually open I remained. I had the sensation that I was outdoors even while being inside the cabin. During a morning drumming ritual, I realized the plant kingdom was talking to me. Plants, berries, flowers, and trees were telling me of their medicinal properties and how to use them. The plant kingdom and I remained in communion all morning long, lost in our own private conversations. The plant kingdom had suddenly come alive to me.
Physical description The family Ericaceae consists of 125 genera and 3500 species of shrubs and treelets known to contain iridoid, phenolic glycosides and tannins. Ericaceae are widespread in temperate and subtropical regions and in tropical mountains. Note that the presence of iridoids in Ericaceae suggests that the family should be classified in the Asteridae rather than Dilleni-idae. In this family the leaves are simple, small, firm and without stipules. The flowers are perfect, regular, hypogynous and arranged in bracteate racemes. The calyx and corolla consist of 3-7 sepals and petals. The corolla is tubular and often urceolate, and 5-lobed. The andrecium consists of 2 whorls of 5 stamens attached directly to a nectary disc. The anthers are dorsifixed, tetraspo-rangiate, dithecal and open by apical pores. The gynecium consists of 2-10 carpels united to form a compound and plurilocular ovary which encloses several ovules attached to axile (below) and parietal (above) placentas....
Long, thin, and sheathing at the base. The tendrils are axillary and bifid. The blade is deeply incised, rigid, woolly on both surfaces, and laxly serrate. The blade shows 3-5 pairs of secondary nerves which are flat above and slightly raised below. The flowers are 1 cm x 7 mm, axillary and solitary. The calyx consists of 5 lobes which are narrowly lanceolate and equal in length to the corolla. The corolla is yellow within and greenish outside, and the lobes are ovate-oblong and 5-nerved.The flower pedicels are 1 cm-1.8cm long, slender, and woolly. The fruits are smooth, globose, greenish berries, measuring up to 40 cm in diameter. The flesh is reddish-pink, or white, juicy and palatable. The seeds are blackish, marginated and glossy (Fig. 112).
Physical description It is a shrub which grows to a height of 4 m in the mountains of Southeast Asia at 30004000 feet altitude. The stem bark is greyish, ashy, fairly hairy at the apex, deeply fissured and with numerous leaves-scars. Leaves simple, spiral, sessile and without stipules. The blade is 2.5cm-3.3cm x 4mm-5mm, velvety below, elliptic-lanceolate, thick, acuminate at the apex and without nerves. The inflorescences are very small hairy spikes. The flowers comprise 5 mm-1 mm long sepals. The 5 petals of the corolla are 2 mm x 1 mm. The stigma is hairy at the base and 2 glossy berries (Fig. 129).
Physical description The family Boraginaceae consists of about 100 genera and 2000 species of trees, shrubs or herbs well represented in Southern Europe, Asia and North America. Boraginaceae are known to elaborate silicic acid, allantoin, hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids derived from ornithine, prenylated naphthoquinones (alkannin), inulin-type fructans and tannins but lack of iridoids. The stems are terete and covered with bristly calcified or silified hairs. The leaves of Boraginaceae are simple, covered with bristly calcified or silified hairs, alternate, and without stipules. The inflorescences are scorpioid cymes. The flowers are showy, star-shaped, actinomorphic and principally hermaphrodite. The calyx, corolla and andrecium comprise of 4-6 sepals, petals and stamens respectively. The anthers are 2-celled, open in terms of length and are attached to the corolla tube, and alternate with the lobes. Whether a nectary disc is present or not, the corolla tube shows hairy...
Physical description It is an under-storey herb found in the lowlands and hilly rainforests of the Asia-Pacific, which grows to a height of about 30 cm. Leaves simple, spiral and exstipu-late. The petiole is short and thick. The blade is lanceolate, fleshy, light green on the surface and purplish underneath, and slightly toothed. The inflorescences are 12cm-20cm long racemes of small and white campanu-late flowers. The fruits are black berries (Fig. 140).
Pharmaceutical interest Classical examples of Anacardiaceae are Pistacia lentiscus var. chia (that produces mastic), Rhus coriaria (dyeing and tanning Sumac), Rhus succedanea (Japanese wax tree) and the edible Pistacia vera (pistachio nut). The dried berries of Rhus glabra (Pennsylvanian sumac)
Physical description It is a spiny shrub which grows to a height of 28 m. It is native to South America and cultivated in several tropical countries for decorative and medicinal purposes. Leaves simple, spiral, glossy and succulent. The petiole is 3 cm long. The blade is lanceolate and 6cm-20cm x 2cm-7cm. The areoles produce 05, 5mm-1 cm long spines on young stems, and up to 40, 2 cm long spines for older stems. The flowers are 4cm-6cm, red or orange, terminal, grouped by 2-4 and showy. The fruits are 4cm-5cm in diameter, fleshy and glossy conical berries containing 6mm-8mm diameter seeds (Fig. 59).
Physical description It is a small fruit tree native to Central America. The bole is soft-wooded, marked with conspicuous leaf-scars and laticif-erous. Leaves 30cm-60cm, glabrous, palmati-fid and palmatinerved. The petiole is about 30 cm long, fleshy and thin. The flowers are light yellow, slightly fragrant, and generally dioecious. The male flowers are arranged in long dropping panicles. The female flowers are arranged in short clusters. In the female flowers, the ovary is single-locular and the stigma is sessile, 5-lobed and lacerated. The fruits are succulent, indehiscent, single-celled, ovoid to oblong, greenish-yellow, smooth and 15 cm x 30 cm berries. The flesh is red, juicy and palatable. The seeds are numerous and black, and taste like capper (Figs. 109 & 110).
Extracts of Juniperus communis and other species are used in cosmetics, as hair conditioners, and in fragrances (1). The volatile oil distilled from the berries of Juniperus communis (juniper) can act as a gastrointestinal irritant. It is said that excessive doses can cause renal damage, and use during pregnancy is discouraged because of a fear that this might also stimulate the uterus.
Physical description It is a fruit tree native to China, North India, and Japan. The wood is reddish. The stems are smooth, lenticelled, and hairy at the apex. Leaves simple, alternate and without stipules. The petiole is 1.3cm-1.5cm long and hairy. The blade is 8cm-10.5cm x 6.4 cm-7.2 cm, membranaceous, hairy, ovate to broadly elliptic, dark green on the surface and lighter green underneath. The base of the blade is asymmetrical, and the margin is obscurely wavy. The midrib and secondary nerves are flat above and raised below. The flowers are axillary and solitary on 5 mm pedicels which are hairy. The fruits are yellow berries, which are leathery, glossy and approximately 7 cm in diameter (Fig. 134).
The petiole is slender. The blade is narrowly elliptic, tapered toward the apex and the base is dark green, glossy, and succulent. The margin is laxly crenate.The inflorescences are terminal. The flowers are small and whitish-pink. The calyx consists of 5 free sepals. The corolla is short and tubular, and consists of 5 spreading petals. The andrecium comprises of 5 short pediceled stamens with large anthers, with the entire structure forming a conspicuous cone around the style. The fruits are red, glossy, globose and 5 mm long berries (Fig. 137).
By 7 to 8 days the Blueberries had risen a few centimetres in height above the Master Kush, other then this there were no major differences in size or structure. Nether variety had the remarkably thick fan leaves, or dense squat structures characteristic of Indicas. At 9 days the first signs of sex began to show on both varieties, so we repotted 8 of the females from the 3 litre pots into 15 litre pots. The 3 litre pots served us well, with both varieties having nice thick healthy root system. We checked the others every day or so, eventually weeding out 9 males, leaving us with 7 female Blueberries plants and 4 female Master Kush plants. When we repotted them we cut of the lower _ of the bud sites to divert the energy to the top buds (colas). Around 21 days into flowering, all the plants had nice thick central stems and medium side branching. A quick check revealed all the plants had grown roots to the bottom of their individual pots. A few bud sites on both varieties had begun to...
Although a variety of RCTs, a meta-analysis and a systematic review contribute to a broad basis of clinical evidence concerning the use of hawthorn in CHF, it is difficult to translate all this knowledge into practice due to the wide range of daily dosage and treatment duration. However, based on the above-mentioned research evidence and our clinical experience, some conclusions can be drawn. In the case of CHF up to NYHAII a daily dosage of 300 to 900 mg seems to be appropriate. Although most evidence is available on hydroethanolic hawthorn extracts from leaves and flowers, one RCT shows a comparable efficacy for an extract from berries. As hawthorn extracts have been used together with standard medication in the treatment of CHF, in most of the studies its additive efficacy remains the one with quite robust data, although one trial indicates that monotherapy might be possible as well and, one would like to add, at least in the early stages of CHF treatment. The clinical trials seem...
The guests for this dinner were Jack The Emperor of Hemp and his lovely wife Jeannie Herer, the queen of the world as I know it, the itty bitty pretty one, Linda and myself. Craig filmed the whole thing for Hempin' Ain't Easy. We started with what I believed to be the most decadent items of the night, infused organic strawberries rolled in seva, they were delicious and very powerful. They were served with a veggie tray and a cannabis infused ranch dip. After some idle chit chat and much laughter we sit down for dinner. We were served a wonderful cannabis infused organic salad with a cannabis infused organic ranch dressing and organic sourdough dinner rolls. We then moved on to our main course which was awesome. Cannabis infused chicken, potatoes, and asparagus, all cooked to perfection. As none of us drink, we washed it down with a variety of juices, waters, and my soda. Steve and Dr. Diane joined us for dinner The talented and charming and most beautiful Yvonne The Snake Lady danced...
Prunus Pensylvanica is colonizer of disturbed areas, having finely toothed alternate leaves, oval and elongated with a pointed tip. The bark on the trunk is reddish to dark brown with distinctive horizontal pinkish markings. White five-petaled flowers on long stalks open in early summer, followed by edible red berries later in the sum- Phytolacca Ericana Common Names Poke, Pokeweed, Pokeberry, Inkberry, Pigeonberry Poison Phytolagen Dosage 30-35 Berries, 28-3o 8oz(227G) Leaves, i 3oz(85G) Root, 36-4o 8oz(227G) Stems, 36-4o 8oz(227G) Young Shoots
Phenolic compounds are a widely studied group of compounds from natural food and medicinal plants and are also implicated in various biological activities. Certain phenolic compounds such as ellagic acid found in strawberries, raspberries, grapes, walnuts, etc. have been found to be antimutagenic 97 . Also, the compounds such as epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechins, (-)-epi-gallocatechin gallate have been reported to be responsible for the antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea 98, 99 . Ohe et al. 100 studied the antigenotox-ic properties of tea leaf extracts in a Salmonella umu-test. Geetha and workers 101 demonstrated the antimutagenic activity of green tea catechins against oxidative mutagens such as tertiary butyl hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide using Salmonella ty-phimurium 102 tester strains.
The Blueberries were donated by Soft Secrets UK. x3 seed produced All the plants grew healthy in bloom shooting up to reaching about 4ft tall. The plants were big and the sativa influence was noticeable when grown besides skunk plants. One of the 3 Blueberries grew completely purple calyxes from the off-set in bloom. This plant continued to remain purple until harvest. The other x2 plants were a blue grey tone, with the odd purple part now and then. The fans were At harvest time the flowers were long and compact on the blue grey plants, like grey carrots when trimmed. These were fruity to smoke. The 'purple pheno', while still dense, was not as close in structure. The buds were also slightly smaller. The taste scent of the 'purple plant' had a musky-sweet twang, like chutney or jam. The yield was above average at 50g plus per plant. After a good 6month cure the colourful calyx retain the grey blue purple tones. To smoke Blueberries, varies depending upon the flower sampled- sometimes
We have all seen the animals and the birds out hunting for food or grazing every day, but did you know that even if they had the mental capacity to comprehend the concept of a day off, they couldn't have one, as they need to keep looking for food No two week holidays in the sun for them, no weekends off, just work, work, work. That's exactly what it used to be like for us. Hunter gatherers. Hunting for animals to kill, and gathering berries etc. in the forest. Every day. How many of us know anything about the food we eat How many of us could identify fungi and berries in the forest I know I can't, and neither could my parents.
Alkaloids are heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. The morphine (from the Greek Morpheus, god of dreams), isolated in 1805 from the opium poppy Papaver somnif-erum, were the first alkaloid used in medicine. Solamargine and michellamine B, the glycoalkaloids of Solanum khasianum berries, has been shown to inhibit HIV, while berberine inhibited intestinal infections associated with AIDS 102 . Duan et al. 103 reported that the pyridine alkaloid triptonine from Tripterygium hypoglau-cum and a clinically used extract of T. wilfordii have potent anti-HIV activity 104 , but matairesinol and harman from Symplocos setchuensis inhibited HIV replication 16 . The skimmianine isolated from the extract of Zanthoxylum chalybeum seed inhibited Edmonston and Swartz strains of measles virus 105 . On the other hand, the aromoline alkaloid of Stephania cepharantha root tuber, used in folklore medicine of China and Mongolia, inhibited HIV-1 106 , while the isoquinoline alkaloid thalimonine of Thalictrum...
The yield was nice and the clusters had a really stinky scent (a mix of petrol, skunk, berries and spices combined). To smoke Mummia is very strong with a more-ish like taste. The effects are weird If you have a good stash of buds you can smoke lots of it (like Jack Herer). But if you smoke a little it's very strong (like Soma's Rock Bud) which is strange Perhaps, when this strain is new to the system, its potency can really take you back
A few pairs of indistinct secondary nerves. The base of the blade is tapered and the apex pointed. The inflorescences are terminal racemes. The flowers are white or greenish, without a corolla tube. The fruits are black, succulent, tipped and 4 mm long berries (Fig. 139).
Three sisters who ate berries of Coriaria myrtifolia (redoul) suffered from acute poisoning the adverse effects affected the gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain), the nervous system (obnubilation, convulsions, and their complications), and respiratory function (hyperpnea, apnea, short and superficial respiration), together with myositis of the pupils one died (2).
And attached to 6mm-1.5cm long pedicels. The calyx is green, tomentose, membranaceous, 5-lobed, the lobes being 3 mm x 2 mm. The corolla is white, membranaceous, and 5-lobed. The corolla lobes are triangular and 1 cm x 2mm-3mm. The andrecium consists of 5 stamens, the anthers of which are bright yellow, showy and adnate one to another. The fruits are green, globose berries of about 1.7 cm in diameter, and are palatable albeit sourish (Fig. 290).
Dosage 4oz(113G)Bark, 20-23 Berries This erect shrub which grows up to 6m tall, has long upright branches with shiny brown bark and pronounced light tentacles. There are no thorns. The dark green, entirely smooth leaves turn yellow or red in autumn. The small, greenish-white flowers arise from leaf barrettes in the upper branches and give way to globular berries, green turning to red and finally glossy black. Rhamnus forms dense undergrowth along with alder, spindle tree and guilder rose in damp woodland, hedge rows, marshes and swamps. Rhamnus prefers acidic and light sand or peaty soils.
However, some alkaloids are used as additional components of food. The most well known is the use of the quinine as a bitter in tonic water according to an established procedure. Theophylline is an important component of black tea. Caffeine is a well-known component of coffee. Theobromine is found in cacao plants but not in the final products based on cacao seeds, such as cacao drinks or chocolate. Theobromine is removed during fermentation and processing. Processing is very important for the production of the final alkaloid product consumed. In the case of coffee, a high-quality product is possible only from the ripened berries600'601. There are two methods of processing coffee. The first one is the so-called dry method , used especially in Brazil and in tropical Africa. It is based on the simple drying of berries in the sun. In humid areas this method cannot be used, as sun-drying can prove difficult. In these places, the so-called wet process is preferred. Berries are first crushed...
Solanum Dulcamara Common Names Bittersweet, Climbing Nightshade, Deadly Nightshade, Felonwood, Mad Dog Berries, Violet Bloom Poison Belladonna Dosage 4-5 Berries, 8-12 1oz(28G) Leaves This perennial climbing half-bush can be met in various humid places in riverside thickets of bushes, on wood bogs, along ditches, on humid meadows. Branches are hollow, and grow up to 9' in length. For climbing this plant uses acute, hooked side shoots. Leaves are alternate, canadensis lanceolate, with two little blades at the foots of petiole. Flowers are violet with yellow, conically joined stamens They are assembled in drooped curled bunches. Flowering takes place during the summer. The fruits(oval berries) appear after that. At first the berries are green, and with ripeness become red. The ripe berry's taste at first is sweet and then becomes bitter. Solanum Nigrum Common Names Black Nightshade, Common Nightshade, Murderweed Poison Belladonna Dosage 4-5 Berries The potato plant has a short life span...
Why breed cannabis seeds Why not strawberries or tulips Funny you ask, because I do breed strawberries also. I have a very nice breed that I have made myself, its half Dutch and half Norwegian I call it 'Sweety'. Nowadays I have pulled most of my strawberries and just kept three plants growing, (so I don't lose the strain). I also make room for my roses, which I have been breeding for some years now. I also breed cats-Abbysenian's.
Viburnum Opulus Common Names Flat Seed Berry, Guilder-Rose, Highbush Cranberry Poison Locane Dosage 12-15 Berries The Viburnum is a 3' evergreen shrub. This plant flowers in spring, these fragrant flowers range from white and cream to pink-flushed or wholly pink. In late summer or fall the shrub bears ornamental fruits. They are usually spherical and may be blue, or black. The mature berries are edible but acidic and best suited for preparation of jellies or preserves. This plant grows in mostly rainy forests and valleys.
You grab your mega trolley, and away you go First through the veg section, you grab whatever you can -whatever is on special. Oh, look at those beautiful strawberries imported all the way from farawayland Welcome shoppers Everything will be fine in your life, just listen to what we say Buy some out of season strawberries today imported all the way from mars, they're lovely. And on special offer today, we have multi-packs of cardboard biscuits. Buy one get ten free. In the uk, we have become used to eating certain fruits, or used to eating food all year round when some is clearly seasonal. If you are eating strawberries in november, the chances are that they have had to be grown in another country for your pleasure. We need to learn the art of patience when it comes to food. It is not an old fashioned concept. Most fruit and vegetables are harvested at different times of the year, so if you are eating something out of season, it has either been grown under artificial conditions, or is...