Alternative Medicine Ebooks
Botanical medicine or herbal therapy is a type of complementary alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders. Individuals worldwide use both herbal therapy and nutritional supplements extensively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80 of the world's population relies on herbs for a substantial part of their health care. Herbs have been used by virtually every culture in the world throughout history, from the beginning of time until now. For example, Hippocrates prescribed St. Johns Wort, currently a popular herbal remedy for depression. Native Americans used plants such as coneflower, ginseng, and ginger for therapeutic purposes. Herbal therapy is part of a group of nontraditional therapies commonly known as complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, CAM therapies are not widely taught in medical schools. A 1998 survey revealed that 75 of 117 US medical schools offered elective courses in CAM or included CAM topics in required...
In 1992, the National Institutes of Health established an Office of Alternative Medicine to facilitate the study of alternative medical treatments and to disseminate the information to the public. In 1998, the name was changed to National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). This office was established partly because of the increased interest and use of these therapies in the United States. It has been estimated that approximately 40 of all individuals in the United States use some form of complementary alternative therapy. In 1997, Americans spent more that 27 billion on these therapies. Among the various purposes of the NCCAM,
The business of dietary supplements in the Western World has expanded from the Health Store to the pharmacy. Alternative medicine includes plant based products. Appropriate measures to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of these either already exist or are being answered by greater legislative control by such bodies as the Food and Drug Administration of the USA and the recently created European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, based in London. In the USA, the Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act of 1994 recognised the class of phytotherapeutic agents derived from medicinal and aromatic plants. Furthermore, under public pressure, the US Congress set up an Office of Alternative Medicine and this office in 1994 assisted the filing of several Investigational New Drug (IND) applications, required for clinical trials of some Chinese herbal preparations. The significance of these applications was that each Chinese preparation involved several plants and yet was...
Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures used in the maintenance of health, prevention of diseases and improvement of physical and mental illness. In practice, traditional medicine refers to the following components acupuncture (China), Ayurveda (India), Unani (Arabic countries), traditional birth attendant's medicine, mental healer's medicine, herbal medicine, and various forms of indigenous medicine. Complementary or alternative medicine refers to a broad set of healthcare practices that are not part of a country's own tradition and are not integrated into the dominant healthcare system. Traditional medicine has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world, and its use is rapidly spreading in industrialized countries 1 . Knowledge of plants and of healing have been
Though traditional and alternative medicine and its practitioners exist in Europe, it is not officially recognized and is punishable under the law in France, Italy, Spain and other countries, while it is unregulated in UK. This requires provisions in pharmacopoeias to include herbal drugs. Allopathic medicine is practiced predominantly in developed countries, and herbal drugs are categorized as food supplements and are not reimbursed by the social security system.
Ipecacuanha is an extract of the root of Psychotria ipecacuanha, also known as Cephaelis ipecacuanha, a member of the Rubiaceae. It contains the emetic alkaloids cephaeline and emetine. It has often been used as a home remedy for various purposes, and not only as an emetic. It is a traditional ingredient of some expectorants, since expectoration often accompanies vomiting. Misuse of ipecacuanha by patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia has resulted in severe myopathy, lethargy, erythema, dysphagia, cardiotoxi-city, and even death. Use in infancy generally seems safe.
Less familiar modern opium preparations include home remedy mixtures of the substance with caffeine, aspirin, and acetaminophen (Tylenol or other brands). In America opium preparations were once a standard method of quieting noisy infants and children, and that practice is still followed in some parts of the world. One hazard in that custom is the possibility of fatal overdose, as people administering such concoctions do not always understand pediatric dosage.
Medical application and which do not, especially when a drug has a long history as a folk remedy When anecdotal stories are told about how some persons appear to have benefited from a drug, how can we show if that effect is real and that the population as a whole would benefit from it If the evidence for effectiveness is just not clear, what do we do Why do people get so upset about these issues, especially when a drug with abuse potential is involved
Plants have become increasingly important as a source of biologically active natural products. It is estimated that 25 of all medicines contain plant derivatives, and plant components have been used as the starting material for many semi-synthetic drugs 8, 9 . Herbs are often considered to be safer, gentler, and of lower cost than conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Plants are efficient chemical factories that produce a wide variety of chemical compounds called phytochemi-cals. Phytopharmaceuticals are complex products, and their inherent biological variation is due to different growth, harvest, drying, and storage conditions 7 . There was a big upsurge in the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States in the 1990s. A survey showed that use of herbal medicines increased from 2.5 in 1990 to 12.1 in 1997. The usage of CAM is generally more frequent among women and people in the 35-49 age groups 5, 10 . In the western United States research...
A considerable amount of evidence suggests that bioflavonoids are health-promoting, disease-preventing dietary compounds and are the basis of many traditional folk remedies. Some are applied in therapy or used as prototypes for the development of specific drugs 15, 16 . The antiviral activities of plant bioflavonoids have been evaluated 74 and reviewed 15 earlier. The black tea flavonoid theafla-vin is an antioxidant and has been shown to neutralize bovine rotavirus and coron-avirus 75 , while the flavonol iridoid glycosides luteoside isolated from Barleria prionitis and Markhamia lutea root have potent anti-RSV activity 76 . Flavones isolated from Rhus succedanea and Garcinia multiflora showed various antiviral activities amentoflavone and robustaflavone inhibited HSV amentoflavone, robustaf-lavone, and agathisflavone inhibited influenza virus while measles and VZV were inhibited by rhusflavanone and succedaneflavanone 77 .
In DSM-IIIR, psychoactive substance abuse is defined as a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use or by recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous . It is a residual category, with dependence taking precedence when applicable. The term abuse is sometimes used disapprovingly to refer to any use at all, particularly of illicit drugs. Because of its ambiguity, the term is not used in ICD-10 (except in the case of non-dependence-producing substances, see below) harmful use and hazardous use are the equivalent terms in WHO usage, although they usually relate only to effects on health and not to social consequences. The Office of Substance Abuse Prevention in the USA has also discouraged employment of the word abuse , although terms such as substance abuse remain in wide use in North America and in...
Indigenous medicines, especially of plant origin, are used extensively for the treatment of various diseases. With lack of safe and effective treatment for liver diseases, researchers have been looking for alternative therapies that curb symptoms with minimum adverse effects on patients. Silybum marianum (milk-thistle) 15 and its extracts have been used since the times of ancient Greece for medicinal purposes. It is now currently used widely in Europe for liver disease, and is readily available in the United States from alternative medicine outlets and outdoor markets. Studies on effect of silymarin, an extract of milk-thistle, in preventing complications of chronic hepatitis virus infection at a dose of 140 mg three times daily suggest there is a need for optimization (e.g. single dosage, dose doubling), as efficacy could not be established. Silymarin may benefit the liver by promoting the growth of certain types of liver cells, demonstrating a protective effect, inhibiting...
Medicinal plants constitute a source of raw materials for both traditional systems of medicine (e.g. Ayurvedic, Chinese, Unani, Homeopathy, and Siddha) and modern medicine. Nowadays, plant materials are employed throughout the industrialized and developing world as home remedies, over-the-counter drugs, and ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry. As such, they represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. Most rural populations, especially in the developing world, depend on medicinal herbs as their main source of primary health care. Although most medicinal herbs are not, in their natural state, fit for administration, preparations suitable for administration are made according to pharmacopeia directions. The therapeutic potential of a herbal drugs depends on its form whether parts of a plant, or simple extracts, or isolated active constituents. Herbal remedies consist of portions of plants or unpurified plant extracts containing several constituents, which often...
Women looking for natural remedies for pregnancy-associated constipation are advised to use bulk laxatives, since stimulant laxatives are contraindicated 29 . In particular, Cascara sagrada, senna and aloe contain anthroquinones that could cause contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus 8 .
Herbs and herbal preparations have been used to treat ailments throughout the history of humanity. A World Health Organization (WHO) survey has reported that about 70-80 of the world's population rely chiefly on traditional medicines, mainly of herbal sources, in their primary health care. Towards the end of the twentieth century herbal medicine became more mainstream throughout the world, partly as a result of the recognition of the value of traditional medicinal systems, particularly of Asian origin. We have also seen an increase in the popularity and use of natural remedies in developed countries, including herbs, herbal medicines, over-the-counter health foods, neutraceuticals, harbal medicinal products. The use of herbal medicines is especially prevalent in primary health care and for many chronic diseases. Overall, the world market for herbal medicine and products is increasing rapidly, especially for Chinese, German, and Indian herbal medicines.
Royal jelly (SEDA-21, 494) is a viscous secretion produced by the pharyngeal glands of the worker bee, Apis mellifera. It is widely used in alternative medicine as a health tonic. Its internal use by atopic individuals can cause severe, sometimes even fatal, asthma and anaphylaxis (9-11). Topical application can lead to contact dermatitis (12).
On a global basis, acupuncture is one of the most commonly used forms of complementary and alternative medicine. It is used predominantly to alleviate pain, but many other indications have been proposed. Contrary to prevailing public opinion it is not entirely risk free (47). Several review articles have addressed this issue, and it has been pointed out that tissue trauma (for example pneumothorax) and infections (for example hepatitis B) are the most common complications of acupuncture (48). Both are rare and both could be avoidable with adequate training and experience of acupuncturists.
Humans have long been aware that certain plants can be used to provide quick energy, treat specific ailments, or improve a person's mood. Physicians and healers in all preindustrial societies had their lists of locally available herbs and medicines, many of which have been used for centuries. With the advance of medical technology and the discovery of drugs such as amphetamines, morphine, and Valium, industrialized societies largely abandoned these natural remedies and treatments. In recent years, however, popular backlash against institutionalized or traditional medicine and an increased focus on a more organic lifestyle has led to renewed interest in natural drugs in the industrialized world.
Dried rattlesnake meat (SEDA-14, 442) (SEDA-18, 2) is a well-known folk remedy that can be purchased without prescription in Mexico, El Salvador, and the South-western part of the USA. It is available as such and in the form of powder, capsules, or pills, which may be labeled in Spanish as v bora de cascabel,'' ''pulvo de v bora,'' or carne de v bora.
Although natural products containing the drug have a long history, ephedrine was not isolated from ma huang until the 1880s. Ephedrine is found in other plants as well. It can be refined from plants or synthesized in a laboratory. Despite ma huang's familiar use as a medicinal herb, Western medicine did not accept ephedrine until the 1920s. Ephedrine has found usage in standard medicine, alternative medicine, and recreation. Responding to a survey, 14 companies reported they sold the equivalent of 425 million individual doses in 1995, 976 million in 1997, and 3 billion in 1999. In alternative medicine ephedrine is marketed for losing weight, increasing muscle mass, facilitating intellectual concentration, and promoting vigor. A scientific study found that ephedrine in combination with caffeine (but not by itself) significantly improves endurance in physical exercise. Many sports organizations ban use of ephedrine by athletes.
Plant materials are used throughout the developed and developing world as home remedies, in over-the-counter drug products, and as raw material for the pharmaceutical industry, and they represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. Therefore, it is essential to establish internationally recognized guidelines for assessing their quality. Certain herbs have become popular over the years, but the public, medical practitioners, and the media still have a poor understanding of herbal medicine. Evidence is emerging on the dangers of herbs. As in most situations, the truth lies hidden under the media hype, poorly understood science, and exaggerated claims. Seeing herbal medicines as either panaceas or poisons blinds us to the reality that in most cases they are neither Lack of experience, information, and education about herbs make consumers, physicians, and other orthodox health care providers easy victims of market exploitation and herbal myths.
A neonate hospitalized for suspected sepsis developed chemical burns following a topical treatment with vinegar, a common home remedy 103 . An early fatal colitis was observed in a 4-year-old boy following exposure to the alkaloids detected in Chelidonium majus 104 . Other case reports documented life-threatening brady-cardia and respiratory depression in three small children following unintentional
Do You Suffer From The Common Cold, Hair Loss, Erectile Dysfunction, Cancer, Arthritis, Allergies, Diabetes, Depression, High Blood PressureCholesterol, Or Hemorrhoids? With health care on the rise, many people are looking for natural alternatives to the costly medications we currently rely on.