Allergic Reaction Ebook

Allergy Relief

This easy-to-read guide contains every piece of information you will EVER need to beat allergy, and get the relief from allergic reactions that you have always needed. Sniffing, itching, and watery eyes are NOT a natural part of life, and they ARE something that you can get rid of! Don't sit around feeling miserable and wishing you were feeling better when there are solutions to your problems! You don't have to pay HUGE amounts of money to a doctor for expensive medicines when this book can give you the tools to get rid of allergy symptoms once and for all. We are so sure that it will help you that we give a 60 day money-back guarantee if it doesn't help you. That's how sure we are that your symptoms will be GONE. Breathe easy; help is on the way! Order now to get the relief of allergy symptoms you deserve. Continue reading...

Allergy Relief Summary

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Contact allergy in the anogenital region

Allergic contact dermatitis is a common anogenital disease. The predominant complaints are itching and burning. Scratching, mainly at night, and lichenification can lead to painful erosions. Topical medicaments, body care products, popular remedies, and sanitary products are the main sources of contact allergens in the anogenital area. Although the spectrum is comparable to that of all patients tested between 1992 and 1997, there are some allergens of pronounced significance for the anogenital region. Cinchocaine HCl ranked fourth among contact allergens Topical local anesthetics play an important role in anogenital contact allergy (15-19). Cinchocaine is commonly used in topical antihemorrhoidal formulations and is a well-known sensitizer (20). Although benzocaine is not as widely used in topical anesthetic formulations in Germany, patients with anogenital dermatitis were at higher risk of sensitization. Amide-type local anesthetics, like lidocaine HCl and tetracaine, are less potent...

Allergic reactions to rocuronium

During the last few years several allergic reactions to rocuronium have been reported. Based on data from the UK, Australia, and France, it had been suggested that the incidence of such reactions after rocuronium administration paralleled its frequency of use, as assessed by its market share, implying that rocuronium did not have unusual allergenic properties (4C-6C). Also, the incidence ofhypotension, tachycardia, or reduced oxygen saturation (which might suggest an anaphylactoid reaction) was relatively low after rocuronium administration compared with other muscle relaxants in a computerized analysis of 47 295 anesthetic records in one hospital (7c ).

Contact allergy

Tixocortol pivalate is a marker for glucocorticoid contact allergy, as a positive patch test suggests established contact allergy to hydrocortisone, prednisolone, and their derivatives (68). A literature search via Medline from 1966 to May 2000 revealed only one patient hypersensitive to tixocortol pivalate and budesonide in a pilot study in 34 patients (10 with asthma, 13 with rhinitis, 11 with both) (69). From case reports, the prevalence of glucocorticoid-induced contact allergy has been estimated at 2.9-5 . Based on these observations it has been concluded that patients who use inhaled glucocorticoids and develop unprecedented skin reactions during therapy should be tested for glucocorticoid-related contact allergy (70). Switching from one of the four main glucocorticoid groups to another might prove successful in these cases. As cross-reactivity within glucocorticoid groups may be clinically relevant, skin patch testing has been proposed in cases of suspected glucocorticoid...

General adverse effects

The adverse effects of abacavir that have been most often observed in clinical trials are fatigue, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, rash, and dyspepsia (3,4). Allergic reactions lead to withdrawal of therapy in about 3 of patients (5). These can be severe, and anaphylaxis has been reported after rechallenge in a patient with an apparent allergic reaction to abacavir (6). It is wise to avoid rechallenge when allergy is suspected (7). In one study nausea and vomiting occurred in 3857 of patients, headache in 27-41 , malaise and fatigue in 28 , diarrhea in 18-23 , and weakness in 29 (8). There was also one case of agranulocytosis accompanied by a skin rash.

Local adverse effects

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors as eye drops have more intense effects in myopic and young patients, causing aggravation of myopia, blurred vision, and periorbital pain, due to congestion of the iris and ciliary body. Anterior and posterior synechiae can develop. Allergic reactions have been reported as has epithelial toxicity. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can cause pseudopemphigoid reactions in the eyelids and occlusion of the lacrimal puncta (SED-12,1198) (1). The danger that a miotic agent will produce retinal detachment is directly proportional to the capacity of the drug to produce spasm of the ciliary body. Retinal detachment has been reported after the use of cholinergic agents, but they can also be coincidental.

General Information

Albumin has been used to prevent the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) associated with ovulation stimulation. In 98 women albumin had no positive effect on OHSS (3). Because of adverse effects, such as exacerbation of ascites in OHSS, nausea, vomiting, febrile reactions, allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, and the risk of

Susceptibility Factors Age

The safety and efficacy of ABLC have been studied in an open, emergency-use, multicenter study in 111 treatment episodes in children with invasive mycoses refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal drugs (138). The mean daily dosage was 4.85 (range 1.19.5) mg kg, and the mean duration of therapy was 33 (range 1-191) days. While the proportion of patients with deteriorating renal function was not mentioned, the mean serum creatinine concentration in the entire study population did not change significantly between baseline (109 mmol l) and withdrawal of ABLC (117 mmol l) over 6 weeks. Similarly, there were no significant differences between initial and end-of-therapy concentrations of serum potassium, magnesium, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and hemoglobin. However, there was a significant increase in mean total bilirubin (from 63 to 91 mmol l) at the end of therapy. ABLC was withdrawn because of toxicity in 7 of the 111 children adverse events leading to withdrawal...

Drug Administration Drug formulations

One unusual variant involves applying a transdermal preparation to the scrotum (71), a technique that has been claimed to mimic more closely the natural pattern of release of endogenous testosterone. It is not clear that applying it at this site has any special merit, although some work suggests that the scrotal skin is less likely than other skin areas to exhibit local reactions. Certainly topical preparations of testosterone can elicit such reactions, with pruritus and blistering being common, while induration, erythema, and allergic reactions can also occasionally occur.

See also General anesthetics General Information

Diethyl ether (SED-9, 172) is obsolete as a general anesthetic (1). It is highly inflammable and therefore incompatible with modern surgical and anesthetic techniques. It has an unpleasant smell and irritates mucous membranes this can cause coughing, straining, laryngeal spasm, and hypersalivation. Recovery is slow and accompanied by nausea and vomiting in up to 85 of patients. Liver damage is as frequent as with halothane. Ether raises intracranial pressure and can cause convulsions. It can cause impaired immune responsiveness and contact dermatitis has been reported, together with a systemic allergic reaction (SEDA-5,120).

Hypersensitivity Reactions

A hypersensitivity (or allergic) reaction to a drug occurs in some individuals, especially those with a history of allergy to many substances. Signs and symptoms of a hypersensitivity to penicillin are highlighted in Display 7-3. Once an individual is allergic to one penicillin, he or she is most likely allergic to all of the penicillins. Those allergic to penicillin also have a higher incidence of allergy to the cephalosporins (see Chap. 8). Allergy to drugs in the same or related groups is called cross-sensitivity or cross-allergenicity.

Adverse Reactions

Most of the adverse reactions seen with the administration of azithromycin and clarithromycin are related to the gastrointestinal tract and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions have been reported with the administration of erythromycin. However, there appears to be a low incidence of adverse reactions associated with normal oral doses of erythromycin. As with almost all antibacterial drugs, pseudomembranous colitis may occur ranging in severity from mild to life threatening.

General adverse reactions

In allergic reactions, the drug most probably responsible can be difficult to identify, since the same kind of reaction can occur independently of the chemical nature of the drug. For evaluation of allergic drug reactions, the analysis of time relations (duration of exposure, reaction time, drug-free interval before re-exposure) is extremely important. Particularly in allergic reactions to rifampicin, intermittent treatment or re-exposure after a drug free-interval favors sensitization and occurrence. Depending on the severity of the adverse effects, one, two, or all drugs must be stopped until the adverse reaction has completely disappeared. The use of second-line antituberculosis drugs may sometimes be necessary. In patients with drug fever or common rashes, specific desensitiza-tion may be attempted, at least with isoniazid (12). In more severe reactions, with anaphylactic shock, agranu-locytosis, thrombocytopenia, toxic epidermal necrolysis, or Stevens-Johnson syndrome, specific...

Building Materials Housing

Hemp has been used throughout history for carpet backing. Hemp fiber has potential in the manufacture of strong, rot resistant carpeting - eliminating the poisonous fumes of burning synthetic materials in a house or commercial fire, along with allergic reactions associated with new synthetic carpeting.

Anthemis species and Matricaria recutita chamomile

Chamomile is the vernacular name of Anthemis genus and Matricaria recutita (German chamomile, pinhead). The former are more potent skin sensitizers (delayed-type) than the latter, presumably because they can contain a higher concentration of the sesquiterpene lactone, antheco-tullid. Cross-sensitivity with related allergenic sesqui-terpene lactones in other plants is possible.

General adverse effects of prophylactic BCG immunization

BCG immunization is generally well tolerated. Locally a small papule appears which scales and ultimately leaves a scar however, abnormal reactions can occur. The most common adverse local reaction, suppurative lymphadenitis, has been reported in 0.1-10 of immunized children under 2 years of age. Faulty immunization technique is the most frequent cause of severe abnormal BCG primary reactions (35). The most serious generalized complications of BCG immunization involve disseminated infection with the BCG bacillus and BCG osteitis. Allergic reactions are unusual, but severe anaphylactic reactions can occur, especially when the product is used as an immunostimulant.

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

The NSAIDs are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity. There is a cross-sensitivity to other NSAIDs. Therefore, if a patient is allergic to one NSAID, there is an increased risk of an allergic reaction with any other NSAID. Hypersensitivity to aspirin is a contraindication for all NSAIDs. In general, the NSAIDs are contraindicated during the third trimester of pregnancy and during lactation.

Drug Administration Drug contamination

Allergic reactions to potentially allergenic drugs may explain some transfusion reactions that cannot be explained by the results of routine tests. In many countries donors are asked to volunteer their history of drug intake during the previous 24 hours, so that donation can if necessary be delayed. Nevertheless, in Canadian donors who had not admitted to drug intake 6-7 of the blood samples taken were found to have detectable

Contraindications adverse effects precautions

- Do not administer to children under 3 months, patients with allergy to NSAID, peptic ulcer, coagulation defects, haemorrhage, surgery with risk of major blood loss, severe renal or hepatic impairment, severe heart failure, severe malnutrition, uncorrected dehydration or hypovolaemia, severe infection. - May cause allergic reactions, epigastric pain, peptic ulcer, haemorrhage, renal impairment.

Structures and nomenclature

Natural ACTH (corticotropin) is a polypeptide consisting of 39 amino acids. Its hormonal activity is related to the first 24 amino acids in a sequence that is found in both animal and human pituitary glands. The differing sequences of the remaining 15 amino acids in animals can lead to antibody formation and hence to allergic reactions when animal hormones are injected into humans. From 1970 onwards, therefore, even highly purified corticotropin preparations of animal origin were largely displaced by the so-called synthetic ACTH'' or synthetic corticotropin,'' better known by its generic name of tetracosactide (rINN), which contains only the first 24 amino acids, hence avoiding much of the antige-nicity of the complete molecule. Collectively, corticotro-pin and tetracosactide are known as the corticotrophins.

Preparing the Patient for Local Anesthesia

Depending on the procedure performed, preparing the patient for local anesthesia may or may not be similar to preparing the patient for general anesthesia. For example, administering a local anesthetic for dental surgery or for suturing a small wound may require that the nurse explain to the patient how the anesthetic will be administered, take a patient's allergy history, and when applicable, prepare the area to be anesthetized, which may involve cleaning the area with an antiseptic or shaving the area. Other local anesthetic procedures may require the patient to be in a fasting state because a sedative may also be administered. The nurse may administer an intravenous sedative such as the antianxiety drug diazepam (Valium) (see Chap. 30) during some local anesthetic procedures, such as cataract surgery or surgery performed under spinal anesthesia.

Branchedchain fatty acid esters

Have replaced castor oil and lanolin as major components of lipsticks. These fatty acid esters have low allergenic potential. Recently, another case of contact allergy to di-isostearyl malate (patch tested in 7.7 in petrolatum) has been reported (33A). In another case, a 23-year-old woman, who had cheilitis from her lipstick, showed contact allergy to glyceryl monoisostearate monomyristate according to the authors, contact allergy to this compound has not previously been reported (34A).

Preadministration Assessment

The preadministration assessment of the patient receiving these drugs depends on the reason for use. Examples of assessments the nurse may perform include an assessment of the involved areas (eyes, nose, and upper and lower respiratory tract) if the patient is receiving an antihistamine for the relief of symptoms of an allergy. If promethazine (Phenergan) is used with a narcotic to enhance the effects and reduce the dosage of the narcotic, the nurse should take the patient's blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate before giving the drug.

Contraindications

A decongestant is a drug that reduces swelling of the nasal passages, which, in turn, opens clogged nasal passages and enhances drainage of the sinuses. These drugs are used for the temporary relief of nasal congestion caused by the common cold, hay fever, sinusitis, and other respiratory allergies.

Second Generation Effects Pregnancy

Three cases of severe allergic reactions to dextran 70 (including one pregnant woman at the time of delivery) have been reported (31). All three had received previous hapten prophylaxis. Although the pregnant woman recovered, the baby had evidence of serious brain damage at birth. Another patient with a very high titer of dextran-reactive antibodies died from myocardial infarction, which happened at the same time. The third patient recovered without sequelae. The authors concluded that dextran 70 should be avoided in pregnancy until the baby is born, and that even in the presence of immune prophylaxis, these complications of dextran 70 can develop. Vigilant observation and resuscitation facilities are necessary in all cases.

Drug Administration Drug administration route

In 139 consecutive patients who underwent major gynecological surgery and in whom 32 dextran 70 had been used as an anti-adhesion adjuvant (the mean amount of dextran used was 183 ml), there was an acceptably low rate of complications (34). Adverse effects involved 11 patients and included postoperative ileus (2.9 ), pleural effusion (2.2 ), allergic reactions (1.4 ), wound infection (1.4 ), and labial swelling (0.7 ). There was no evidence of an increased infection rate.

Treatment Options for Insomnia

Antihistamines Named for their ability to block the effects of histamine, a chemical released in the body in response to infection or allergies, these medications decrease secretions in your respiratory tract. They also cause sedation. Diphenhydramine is the agent usually used. It is not habit-forming and doesn't lose its effectiveness over time. The effects are generally quite mild, however, and most people do not find antihistamines significantly helpful.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

As with the dietary proscriptions, any medication that increases tyramine can precipitate a hypertensive crisis such medications include numerous over-the-counter preparations for coughs, colds, and allergies. The same rule applies to sympathomimetic drugs (such as epinephrine and amphetamines or cocaine) and dopaminergic drugs such as anti-parkinsonian medications.

Observational studies

In lymphatic filariasis diethylcarbamazine can cause systemic reactions, such as fever, arthralgia, headache, and malaise, and local reactions such as swollen and painful lymph nodes. All of these reactions are thought to be caused by an allergic reaction to antigens from the dying microfilaria and not to a toxic effect of the drug itself. This causal relation is further emphasized by a study from Indonesia, in which adverse reactions to treatment with diethylcarbamazine were studied in patients with B. malayi filariasis 26 microfilaria-positive patients (mean 235 mf 10ml), 12 endemic'' controls (from the endemic area, but microfilaria counts negative), and 17 patients with elephantiasis, of whom three had with high microfilaria counts (3). Adverse effects, mainly fever, headache, and body aches, started 2-24 hours after the administration of diethylcarbamazine 6 mg kg day for 12 days. Of the patients with positive pretreatment microfilaria counts 15 had severe adverse reactions, 19...

Organs and Systems Immunologic

Desirudin has a very low immunogenic potential. During repeated administration to 263 healthy volunteers, there were no signs or symptoms directly attributable to desirudin and only three volunteers exposed to a second course had allergic reactions with pruritic erythema attributable to desirudin in one case (16). In this study, specific antibodies directed against desirudin were detected in only one subject.

Antihistamines H1 receptor antagonists

Histamine release from mast cells and basophils makes a major contribution to the allergic response, and antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of certain symptoms of allergic disease. However, histamine also functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, being particularly important in maintaining a state of arousal or awareness (1R). First-generation H1 receptor antagonists easily cross the blood-brain barrier, and their consequent well-documented sedative and an-ticholinergic effects, together with short half-lives, greatly limit their use in the treatment of allergic symptoms. However, despite these deficiencies it must be remembered that firstgeneration drugs are still widely used, mainly as over-the-counter products, often in combination with other drugs. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have major advantages over the earlier drugs most notably they lack significant CNS and anticholinergic adverse effects. They have proved to be important...

Placebocontrolled studies

Hypervolemic hemodilution with agents such as ether-ified starches or dextran increases cerebral blood flow and can therefore reduce ischemic tissue damage in the penumbra zones when given within the therapeutic time window. However, the clinical benefit of such therapy has yet to be proven. Since etherified starch is considered to be the safer choice, in particular the recently developed lower molecular weight form (ether-ified starch 130 0.4), an explorative, randomized, placebo-controlled, safety trial of etherified starch for hypervolemic hemodilution in patients with acute ischemic stroke has been undertaken (5). This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study in 106 patients with acute ischemic stroke, who were recruited over 3 years. Treatment comprised high-dose hypervolemic hemodilu-tion with either etherified starch 130 0.4 or placebo within 6 hours of the start of symptoms, with a randomization ratio of 2 1 in favor of etherified...

This writer responsible scientists and doctors advise

There is no pharmacological free lunch in cannabis or any drug. Negative reactions can result. A small percentage of people have negative or allergic reactions to marijuana. Heart patients could have problems, even though cannabis generally relieves stress, dilates the arteries, and in general lowers the diastolic pressure. A small percentage of people get especially high heart rates and anxieties with cannabis. These persons should not use it. Some bronchial asthma sufferers benefit from cannabis however, for others it may serve as an additional irritant.

How to Monitor Your Progress

Monitor Side Effects All medications have side effects. Aspirin can cause ulcers. It can even cause severe brain damage in infants when ingested during the course of a viral illness. Acetaminophen can cause liver damage. Amoxicillin, the most common antibiotic given to ward off ear infections, can cause allergic reactions that are potentially fatal. There is no way to introduce a chemical into the body that induces only the alteration that helps you. They all cause other changes that may result in side effects.

Pharmaceutical interest

Anti-inflammatory property The anti-inflammatory property of Abrus preca-torius L. is attributed to a number isoflavaquinones., such as abruquinone A which inhibits the aggregation of platelets, inflammation and allergy (Kuo SC et al., 1995 Wang JP et al., 1995 1997). Other anti-inflammatory principles are triterpenes saponins (Anam EM et al., 2001).

Drug Administration Drug additives

To increase immunogenicity, the hepatitis A vaccines commercially available are coupled to adjuvant aluminium phosphate or aluminium hydroxide. However, alum precipitates provoke inflammatory responses at the injection site. Immunostimulating reconstituted influenza virosomes have therefore been used as an alternative adjuvant. In 1994, a hepatitis A vaccine using the new adjuvant was licensed in Switzerland, and it was later approved for use in other countries the vaccine was well tolerated and highly immunogenic (SEDA-20,290) (SEDA-22,344). Nine people with a history of ocular sensitivity were immunized with hepatitis B, without untoward reactions. However, this result in such a small series should not be overestimated (75). There have been reports of three cases of inflammatory nodular reactions after hepatitis B immunization aluminium allergy was confirmed (76-78).

Incidence of adverse effects

A report from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre of the WHO has summarized all suspected adverse reactions to herbal medicaments reported from 55 countries worldwide over 20 years (31). A total of 8985 case reports were on record. Most originated from Germany (20 ), followed by France (17 ), the USA (17 ), and the UK (12 ). Allergic reactions were the most frequent serious adverse events and there were 21 deaths. The authors pointed out that adverse reactions to herbal medicaments constitute only about 0.5 of all adverse reactions on record.

Risks of desensitization

The risks of desensitization have to be set against the chance of benefits. The dominant risk is that of an allergic reaction. Subcutaneous injection of allergenic extracts can lead variously to Anaphylaxis can be fatal and requires immediate treatment and measures to prevent recurrence. The Committee on Safety of Medicines, in a report cited below, recommended that allergenic products should only be given when facilities for full cardiopulmonary resuscitation are immediately available and that patients should be kept under medical observation for at least 2 hours after receiving an injection (3). There is at present no evidence of any undesirable long-term adverse effect of repeated courses of allergenic

Benefit to harm balance

The Committee on Allergen Standardization of the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology investigated 46 fatalities that occurred during immunotherapy or skin testing. They noted that the nature and severity of the initial symptoms did not appear to predict the fatal outcome or indicate the cause of death (SEDA-13, 136). In the 5 years from 1985 to 1989, 17 deaths due to allergen immunotherapy were reported, of which 16 were in patients with asthma. None occurred with skin testing. Unstable asthma or accidental overdoses were major contributory factors. The annual fatality rate in the USA from administration of allergenic extracts is low, at one fatality per 2 million doses (8).

Drug administration route

Most pumps deliver insulin subcutaneously. Implantable pumps delivering insulin intraperitoneally with remote control devices are increasingly used (161,162). Pumps provide signals to alert users to malfunction, but leakage of connections often does not activate the alarm. Since the patient has no natural reserve of insulin, breakdown of the pump, leakage, or intercurrent infection without adjustment of the dose rapidly leads to ketoacidosis. The sudden release of insulin from a runaway'' pump is an exceptional event. Hypoglycemic deaths, infections (for example with Mycobacterium for-tuitum) (163), local allergic reactions and infections, thrombosis in intravenous systems, allergy to nickel in needles (164), skin infections (165), needle breakage (SEDA-13, 382), problems with bad batteries, breakdown of the pump, leakage in delivery systems, or wrong insertion of the needle have all been described (SEDA-7, 405) (166). Pumps with sealed reservoirs (waterproof) can expel more insulin...

Comparative studies

In a multinational study for 6 months in 448 patients with type 1 diabetes, two-thirds were given the long-acting insulin detemir and one-third received isophane, both in addition to premeal rapid-acting insulin aspart (14). HbA1c concentrations were comparable, but in the dete-mir group the risk of hypoglycemia was 22 less and the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia was 34 lower. There were two cases of severe hypoglycemia with detemir and one with isophane. Three patients who used detemir developed reactions at the injection site (pain, myalgia, redness, or lipodystrophy) compared with one who used isophane (itching). One potentially allergic reaction was possibly related to detemir.

Strong Iodine Solutions

Reactions that may be seen with strong iodine solution include symptoms of iodism (excessive amounts of iodine in the body), which are a metallic taste in the mouth, swelling and soreness of the parotid glands, burning of the mouth and throat, sore teeth and gums, symptoms of a head cold, and occasionally gastrointestinal upset. Allergy to iodine may also be seen and can be serious. Symptoms of iodine allergy include swelling of parts of the face and body, fever, joint pains, and sometimes difficulty in breathing. Difficulty breathing requires immediate medical attention.

Organs and Systems Liver

The major adverse effect of serious concern has been jaundice. A review of 21 cases of liver damage during iprindole treatment showed that the onset was at 4-21 days after starting treatment (3). Recovery was rapid after withdrawal. Liver biopsy showed predominantly cholestasis. This complication seems to be similar to that seen after chlorpromazine. In one instance (4), jaundice was accompanied by a marked eosinophilia of 30 and laboratory signs suggesting some hepatocellular damage as well. Jaundice promptly recurred when the drug was re-administered. All the features of this case suggested an allergic reaction.

In Vivo Assessment of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity

The preceding discussion clearly demonstrates the similarity in methods used for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal assays of plant extracts and there are many papers in the literature using one of more of the methods. Much of this literature is focussed towards screening of traditional remedies for potential therapeutic agents 4, 5, 47 , food preservation 59-61 , or investigations of mechanisms of action 33, 45, 62, 63 . A smaller number of research groups have moved beyond the in vitro environment and are investigating the in vivo efficacy of those extracts that show promise in the laboratory. This is a more complex and costly activity as not only does the activity against the microorganisms need to be evaluated, there must also be consideration of mammalian cell toxicity and allergic reactions 64 . To date most in vivo testing of plant extracts has involved the use of essential oils against human skin infections, particularly fungal infections, and testing of extracts follow...

Vaccines and Toxoids

Immunologic agents are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the agent or any component of it. The measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines are contraindicated in patients who have ever had an allergic reaction to gelatin, neomycin, or a previous dose of one of the vaccines. The measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines are contraindicated during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, because of the danger of birth defects. Women are instructed to wait at least 3 months before getting pregnant after receiving these vaccines. Vaccines and toxoids are contraindicated during acute febrile illnesses, leukemia, lymphoma, immunosuppressive illness or drug therapy, and non-localized cancer. See Display 54-6 for additional infor- Known allergy to vaccine or vaccine constituents, particularly gelatin, eggs, or neomycin The immunologic agents are used with extreme caution in individuals with a history of allergies. Sensitivity testing may be...

Poisoning symptoms and toxic and fatal concentrations

Since p-lactam antibiotics are considered least toxic among all antibacterial agents, their fatal doses are not clear. However, the presence of high blood levels of these antibiotics can cause seizures, nephritis, leukopenia and bleeding disorders 21 . It is well-known that p-lactam antibiotics occasionally cause allergy reactions. The anaphylactic shock caused by parenteral administration is not so rare. The sensitivity test is, therefore, essential before parenteral administration of p-lactam antibiotics. When such a test is neglected or overlooked, resulting fatality due to anaphylactic shock, such a case is regarded as malpractice.

Drugs Active Against Herpesviruses

Skin Aciclovir was the first compound effective against herpesvirus to be introduced. While it is still commonly used, its usefulness is limited by the frequency of dosing, particularly in Varicella zoster infections. Although allergy is unusual, it can occur in one case it resulted in a skin rash (13A). Cross-reactivity between aciclovir and famci-clovir is unusual. Aciclovir desensitization may be a novel method of treating patients with aci-clovir allergy.

Plasma Protein Fractions

Plasma proteins are contraindicated in those with a history of allergic reactions to albumin, severe anemia, or cardiac failure in the presence of normal or increased intravascular volume and in patients on car-diopulmonary bypass. Plasma protein fractions are used cautiously in patients who are in shock or dehydrated and in those with congestive cardiac failure or hepatic or renal failure. These solutions are Pregnancy Category C drugs and are used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation.

Organs and Systems Nervous system

Data on adverse events reported to a passive provincial surveillance system have been evaluated after the mass immunization with a polysaccharide meningococcal vaccine of 1 198 751 people aged 6 months to 20 years in Quebec. A total of 118 reports of severe adverse events were selected. The most frequent were allergic reactions (9.2 per 100 000 doses), followed by few neurological reactions (0.5 per 100 000 doses) and very few anaphylactic reactions (0.1 per 100 000 doses). There were no reports of long-lasting sequelae or of encephalopathy, encephalitis, or meningitis (15).

Blood blood components plasma and plasma products

Albumin has been used to prevent the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) associated with ovulation stimulation. In 98 women albumin had no positive effect on OHSS (1C). Because of adverse effects, such as exacerbation of ascites in OHSS, nausea, vomiting, febrile reactions, allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock, and the risk of pathogen transmission, albumin should not be used to prevent OHSS.

The advantages of breastfeeding versus the risks of maternal medication

The other well-documented advantages of human milk are the infection-protection qualities that protect the breastfed infant from respiratory infections, otitis media, gastrointestinal infections, and even urinary tract and meningeal infections (Hanson 2004). The study of the immunologic properties of human milk has shown that infants who are exclusively breastfed for at least 4 months have a reduced risk of childhood onset diabetes, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, and childhood-onset cancers - especially leukemia. Hundreds of articles testing the allergy protection of human milk have shown a clear advantage in being breastfed for potentially allergic children.

Possible Role Of Endocannabinoids In Gi Pathological States

Whenever the GIT is challenged by infection, allergy, inflammation, or other injury, the GI immune system is called into operation, which releases a host of proinflammatory mediators including cytokines, PGs, leukotrienes, NO, etc. (Holzer, 2001). Paralytic ileus results from activation of a network of macrophages that reside in intestinal muscularis (Kalff et al., 2003). Release of some of the cited proinflammatory agents from the macrophage network in turn causes the sluggish electrical and contractile responses of the muscularis that are the hallmark of paralytic ileus. Recently, the role of endocannabinoids has been suggested in the pathogenesis of paralytic ileus induced by intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid in mice (Mascolo et al., 2002). Indeed, relative to the vehicle-treated control group, the pathological state was accompanied by increased (1) tissue levels of intestinal anandamide, and (2) number of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in myenteric plexes and nerve bundles...

Organs and Systems Musculoskeletal

The efficacy and safety of pefloxacin, 15-20 mg kg bd for 14-28 days in combination with ceftazidime and amikacin, have been investigated in 21 children (aged 7-16 years) with mucoviscidosis or aplastic anemia (2). Combined therapy had good clinical efficacy. Arthropathy developed frequently and children at risk were over 10 years old and had a history of allergies.

Corticosteroids Cortisone and Relatives

One of the dramatic effects of corticosteroids is to reduce inflammation and certain allergic reactions, such as skin rashes. Pharmacologists have maximized this action in some of the new steroids they have created in laboratories. When these drugs are applied topically that is, when they are put on the skin they are reasonably safe and sometimes miraculously effective. Doctors also frequently prescribe steroids for systemic use that is, to be taken internally. There are clear indications for such use, but because steroids seem almost to have magic powers, doctors tend to overprescribe them, sometimes dispensing them for mild cases of poison ivy, diaper rash, back pain, and other conditions not severe enough to warrant their use.

Second Generation Effects Teratogenicity

The transfer of penicillins (ampicillin, pivampicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin) into the breast milk of nursing mothers with puerperal mastitis to the breastfed infant is minimal (205). The risk of adverse drug reactions due to penicillins is therefore negligible, unless the infant has penicillin allergy (SEDA-14, 215).

Why Chronic Stress Is Bad For Your Immune System

People with type A personalities (the kind of people who are always under the gun, working 80-hour weeks, stressed all the time) have a higher risk of developing health-related problems such as heart disease. They also can develop problems with their immune systems. The body produces its own anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, namely Cortisol. Production of this hormone by the adrenal gland is especially increased during times of psychological stress, whether it is a normal stress response (such as anticipating a final exam, being stuck in traffic, or being chased by a grizzly bear) or an abnormal stress response (such as being chronically depressed). Although the antiinflammatory actions of cortisol can be beneficial in the short run in relieving pain and inflammation, the increases in overall cortisol production in chronically stressed individuals can actually damage the immune system. Cortisol and other corticosteroids suppress the immune system by killing off immune cells and also...

Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine

Serious adverse effects after IPV immunization have not been documented (2). Because IPV contains streptomycin and neomycin, there is a possibility of allergic reactions in those who are sensitive to these antibiotics. Although it has been postulated that IPV, like some viral

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

Several allergic reactions to rocuronium have been reported (11-20). Based on data from the UK, Australia, and France, it had been suggested that the incidence of such reactions after rocuronium administration parallels its frequency of use, as assessed by its market share, implying that rocuronium does not have unusual allergenic properties (15,21,22). In one hospital, the incidence of such reactions was 1 in 3000 (15) and in another 1 in 6000 (11). Also, the incidence of

Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH thyrotropin SED141489

Rapid tumor expansion has been occasionally reported after TSH, including four of 55 patients with central nervous system metastases enrolled in a compassionate use protocol (61Ar). Two patients with locally recurrent papillary carcinoma had tumor growth 12-48 h after their second injection of rTSH rapid improvement in neck pain, stridor, and dysphonia after glucocorticoids suggested an inflammatory etiology (61Ar). There were no features to suggest an allergic reaction only one such case has been reported and there are no reports of antibody formation even after repeated dosing (58R).

Other features of the patient

Relative contraindications to sulfonamides are systemic lupus erythematosus and a known predisposition to lupuslike reactions. Allergic reactions to antimicrobials are frequent in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. They are especially susceptible to reactions to penicillins, cephalo-sporins, and sulfonamides, but reactions to macrolides and tetracyclines also seem to be over-represented in these patients (210).

Medications for lice and scabies

Herbal preparations which also contain chrysanthemums can cause allergic reaction in individuals who are allergic to this family of plants (chrysanthemums, ragweed, and Echinacea are all members of the Composite family). Permethrin and allethrin are synthetic pyrethroids, and are used similarly. These are rapidly metabolized and well-tolerated. No human milk data are available.

Side and Adverse Effects of Some Phytocompounds

Many adverse drug-herb interactions constitute a great danger for patients and might adversely affect the monitoring of certain drug therapies, such as an increase in bleeding time (garlic and ginseng both interact with warfarin) 95, 96 . Other examples include the action against standard immunosuppressants, life-threatening allergic reactions such as contact dermatitis and anaphylaxis (Echina-cea), interference with the monitoring of digoxin (ginseng, hawthorn, licorice, etc.), and hepatotoxicity (kava-kava with alprazolam) 5, 44, 95, 97-109 .

Evaluating Alternative Remedies

Generalize from the experience of another person. For example, penicillin (derived from a natural mold) has saved many lives from pneumonia and other life-threatening infections, but a very small proportion of people of those taking it have died from an allergic reaction. If you based your use on a person who was helped, you might be unaware of how harmful it could be. On the other hand, if you heard only a disaster story, you might refuse a treatment that could save your life. Since these trials aren't performed on most alternative remedies, there is no reliable database about the occurrence and frequency of side effects. As a result, you won't know which side effects to expect, which ones to worry about, and what you should do about them if you experience one. For example, I know one person who developed palpitations on St. John's wort, and another developed a rash. Both people discontinued the drug, but what was their risk Were the palpitations just an intermittent increase in...

Robert V House Peter T Thomas and Hemendra N Bhargava introduction

Drug abuse is a problem of increasing worldwide significance. In addition to the obvious socioeconomic problems associated with the use of so-called street drugs, the abuse of ethical pharmaceuticals may also result in serious untoward health effects depending upon a wide range of variables (Chiang and Goldfrank 1990). One possible medical complication of drug abuse is modulation of the immune system, or immunotoxicity (Pillai and Watson 1990). The immune system is a highly regulated organ system that presents a variety of potential targets for modulation by drugs. This modulation may take the form of immunosuppression, leading to an enhanced susceptibility to infection or neoplasia conversely, it may take the form of immunostimulation, resulting in hypersensitivity (allergy) or autoimmunity (Luster and Rosenthal 1993). Closely associated with drug abuse in recent years has been the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a retroviral infection spread by sexual...

Cocamidopropyl betaine

Cocamidopropyl betaine is the most commonly used amphoteric surfactant in shampoos, bath products, and other cosmetic products. It is popular because of its relatively low irritation potential. Contact allergic reactions are infrequent and have been attributed to sensitizing intermediates rather than cocamidopropyl betaine itself. Of 30 patients who were allergic to cocamidopropyl betaine, all reacted to 3-dimethylaminopropylamine (35c). More recently, two studies have shown that cocamido-propylamine is the more relevant impurity (36c, 37c).

Tranquilizantes 1 Colloquial term for

Calling for concentration and coordination. Such activities are particularly hazardous if tranquillizers are used together with alcohol and or barbiturates (i.e. otherseda-tive hypnotics.) or antihistamines (in cold, cough, and allergy remedies). These effects occur early in therapy, however, and wane over time with increased tolerance (when more of the drug is needed to produce the same effect).

Karpura rasa Cannabis

Kawa-Kawa Piper methysticum. Kawa-kawa Kava. Kawapfeffer Piper methysticum. Kaway si isim Artemisia mexicana. Kawinchu Argemone mexicana. K'awn-k'odl Sophora secundiflora. Kawumm Colloquial term for glass pipe used for smoking hashish. Kaya Colloquial term for marijuana. Kaytrate A Amobarbital. KB Colloquial term for marijuana. KBP O Opium, Medical. Kecubong Brugmansia arborea. Kee Colloquial term for 1 kilogram of drugs, usually for subsequent male after cutting . Keef 1. Colloquial term for hashish. 2. Colloquial term for marijuana. Keeley's cure Colloquial term for intravenous injection of gold on the assumption that an allergy exists to alcohol - the concept of an allergy to alcohol, and this treatment have generally been abandoned. Keep Drugs Clean Purported underworld group of cooks whose mission is to produce safe drugs with few impurities. Keep it green 12 Step program term meaning keep your program fresh and continue to work actively and grow.

Antiedema sympathomimetics

Naphazoline is used in severe rhinitis associated with colds, allergic reactions, and severe and chronic inflammatory conditions, in particular for inflammation of the antrum of Highmore as well as for stopping nosebleeds. Synonyms of naphazoline are nafazair, sanorin, rinazin, and privine.

Aldose Reductase Inhibitors Sed14 1514

Naf S, Esmatjes E, Recasens M, Valero A, Halperin I, Levy I, Ramon G. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion to resolve an allergy to human insulin. Diabetes Care 2002 25 634-5. 20. Pratt EJ, Miles P, Kerr D. Localized insulin allergy treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin. Diabetic Med 2001 18 514-16. 25. Airaghi A, Lorini M, Tedeschi A. The insulin analog aspart a safe alternative in insulin allergy. Diabetes Care 2001 24 2000.

Ephedrine And Pseudoephedrine

Ephedrine Drum Factories Vietnam

Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are often used legally to alleviate congestion. When irritated, the tissues lining the inside of the nose and the respiratory system become swelled, which causes congestion. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine cause the blood vessels to shrink, which brings down the swelling and allows easier breathing. Pseudoephedrine is used primarily in cold and allergy medications. Ephedrine is used more often in asthma medications as a bronchodilator. By acting on the blood vessels in the lungs, ephedrine helps ease breathing by relaxing and widening air passages.7

Bulkforming laxatives

The bulking agents include vegetable fiber products (such as bran), paraffin and methylcellulose (which absorbs water into the intestinal tract), agar (which expands to form a gel), and psyllium seeds or other mucilaginous plant products. Bulking agents are largely free of adverse effects, but any non-absorbable agent can aggravate symptoms associated with pre-existent intestinal stricture. Abdominal bloating due to bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed carbohydrate is a common sequel to excessive intake. The sugar content of some bulk laxatives can be sufficient to impair diabetic control the vegetable matter in other preparations can cause bezoars and is potentially allergenic.

Adverse Reactions and Toxicity

In hypersensitive or allergic patients, idiosyncratic reactions may occur from a dose of contrast medium, and the overall incidence of adverse reactions in patients with allergy is about twice that in the general population (452-455,527).Pretesting the patient by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intravenous injection of small doses has no value in predicting adverse reactions (452-455, 525, 528) but testing by in vitro leukocyte challenge has been reported to be of some predictive value (529). Premedication with antihistamines, anticholinergics, and diaz-epam (468) is less effective than that with corticosteroids (454,525). media, that is, patients with previous reactions to contrast media, patients with asthma, allergy (not to drugs), renal and cardiac impairment, diabetes mellitus, myelomatosis, and sickle-cell anemia poorly hydrated patients and infants and small children. The Japanese Committee on the Safety of Contrast Media conducted similar studies from 1986 to 1988 (535-537). The...

Cumulative index of special reviews Annuals 1625

Allergic reactions, 23.251 coagulation disorders, 18.258 colitis, 17.303 male fertility, 16.262 new, with adjuvants, 17.296 the pill and pregnancy, 24, 274 policies and politics, 16.273 preterm infants, 21.258 prudent use, 25.279 cardiovascular effects, 18.5 second-generation effects, 20.24 Cocamidopropylbetaine, allergy, 19.151 Contrast agents adverse effects, 24.525 anaphylactoid and allergic reactions, 20.422 in magnetic resonance imaging, 20.419 Corticosteroids bone, 16.447,22.182, 25.195 contact allergy, 21.158 effective dose and therapeutic ratio, 23.175 inhaled, systemic availability, 24.185 musculoskeletal adverse effects, 21.417 osteoporosis and osteonecrosis, 19.377, 20.374 preterm infants, 17.445 Cosmetics contact allergy, 16.150, 19.151 ingredient labeling 22.159 COX2 inhibitors, 24.115, 25.126 Ecstasy, deaths, 24.32 EDTA, pseudothrombocytopenia, 21.250 Erythromycin, versus the new macrolides, 21.269 Erythropoietin, status and safety, 16.400 Euxyl K 400, contact allergy,...

Herbal Medicines Potential Therapeutic Agents with Minimal Side Effects

All these studies suggest that the observed hepatoprotective effects might be due to the ability to suppress the oxidative degradation of DNA in the tissue debris 59 . Gurbuz et al. observed significant cytoprotection against ethanol-induced damage and these results were further confirmed by using histopathological techniques 60 . Aminghofran et al. reported the capacity of Cichorium intybus to enhance the proliferation of lymphocytes after stimulation with allogenic cells 61 . Kim et al. investigated the effect of Cichorium intybus on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions and observed inhibition of the systemic anaphylactic reaction and a reduction of plasma histamine levels 62 .

Understanding Scorpions

All scorpions possess a poisonous sting that contains a pair of venom glands. These can paralyze prey or deliver a painful sting to the incautious. Scorpion venoms are complex mixtures of neurotoxins with other substances and each species has a unique mixture. Despite a bad reputation, only one species in the U.S. and about 20 others worldwide have venom potent enough to be considered dangerous to humans. Most other scorpion venom is the equivalent of a strong bee sting painful, but only dangerous to people with severe allergies. As a rule, the thicker the claws, the less dangerous the scorpion. The viciously venomous ones usually have slim pincers. If extracted, the glands provide 0000i0z(.5mg) of venom. A scorpion will produce .0000070z(.2mg) of venom per milking, and they may be milked three times per 24 hour period. Besides their unusually long and dangerous tails, scorpions also differ from other arachnids in having large pedipalps. These are the second pair of appendages on the...

Ecballium elaterium squirting cucumber SED141658

Ecballium elaterium is used in the Mediterranean as a purgative and in treating sinusitis. In a retrospective chart analysis in a Greek ENT department 42 patients with allergic reactions to this remedy, including upper airway edema, were identified (31c). Treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines resulted in full recovery in all cases.

Positive Direct Coomb Test And Intrahepatic Cholestasis

Edwards RG, Dewdney JM, Dobrzanski RJ, Lee D. Immunogenicity and allergenicity studies on two beta-lactam structures, a clavam, clavulanic acid, and a carbape-nem structure-activity relationships. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988 85(2) 184-9. 54. Fernandez-Rivas M, Perez Carral C, Cuevas M, Marti C, Moral A, Senent CJ. Selective allergic reactions to clavula-nic acid. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995 95(3) 748-50.

Delayed reactions to iodinated watersoluble contrast agents

Were 22 with ioxaglate, 8.8 with iopami-dol, and 7.6 with iodixanol. The commonest early reactions were urticaria and nausea and vomiting, the respective incidences being 6.8 and 4.0 with ioxaglate, 0.8 and 1.0 with iopamidole, and 0.5 and 1.1 with iodixanol. A few patients developed sudden hypotension, 0.5 with iopamidole, 1.4 with ioxaglate, and 0.3 with iodixanol. Cardiac arrest occurred in two patients with iopamidole, three with ioxaglate, and one with iodixanol. The frequencies of delayed skin reactions, which were generally benign, were 12 with iodixanol, 4.3 with ioxaglate, and 4.2 with iopami-dol. The authors concluded that selection of a contrast agent for diagnostic cardiac catheter-ization should take account of adverse effects. Iodixanol was the best tolerated agent in the early phase of the study, but it was associated with a higher incidence of delayed skin reactions. The authors did not consider that the skin reactions represented a contraindication to iodixanol,...

General Principles of Drug Administration

It also is important for the nurse to take patient considerations, such as allergy history, previous adverse reactions, patient comments, and change in patient condition, into account before administering the drug. Before giving any drug for the first time, the nurse should ask the patient about any known allergies and any family history of allergies. This not only includes allergies to drugs but also to food, pollen, animals, and so on. Patients with a personal or family history of allergies are more likely to experience additional allergies and must be monitored closely.

Vitamin B6 pyridoxine

Skin Contact hypersensitivity to pyridoxine is rare. Only three cases of allergy to pyridox-ine have been reported in hair lotion (24A), a corticosteroid cream (25A), and a skin cream (Iruxol) (26a). There have also been a few reports of photosensitivity due to pyridoxine hydrochloride (27A-29A).

Allergic Drug Reactions

An allergic reaction also is called a hypersensitivity reaction. Allergy to a drug usually begins to occur after more than one dose of the drug is given. On occasion, the nurse may observe an allergic reaction the first time a drug is given because the patient has received or taken the drug in the past. A drug allergy occurs because the individual's immune system views the drug as a foreign substance or antigen. The presence of an antigen stimulates the antigen-antibody response that in turn prompts the body to produce antibodies. If the patient takes the drug after the antigen-antibody response has occurred, an allergic reaction results. Even a mild allergic reaction produces serious effects if it goes unnoticed and the drug is given again. Any indication of an allergic reaction is reported to the primary health care provider before the next dose of the drug is given. Serious allergic reactions require contacting the primary health care provider immediately because emergency...

The Noncontributor to Charity

Inherit Your Own Money

In the past, the characteristic antithetical to human survival might have been a defective heart or poor kidneys. But with the advent of modern medical advances, medical failures are likely to become less and less important as grounds for natural selection. What will become more and more important is the ability to live on a crowded planet. Characteristics opposed to survival may include an allergy to smoke, excessive argumentativeness, or bellicosity. Such characteristics will tend to lessen a person's ability to survive to adulthood. These characteristics lessen the person's chances of maintaining a situation (marriage, employment) in which reproduction is possible. Thus, if the Darwinian laws are allowed to work themselves out, such negative traits will tend to disappear. But if charity is extended, these harmful traits will be carried over to the next generation.

Cobalt in metal implants and prostheses

Nickel plays a major role in sensitization of patients. Even the small amount present in cobalt chrome alloys often suffices to elicit allergic reactions. Reactions to cobalt are more generally toxic in nature (3). An increased rate of allergy to cobalt and nickel has been found in those patients bearing metallic implants who have developed bone infection in the surroundings of osteosynthesis material. Metals from prostheses can continue to be released into the system for many years. The development of hyper-sensitivity takes time, and allergic reactions are usual delayed for weeks, months, or 1-2 years. The symptoms can assume a variety of forms. Local reactions can cause loosening of the device or local pain. Dermatological reactions include eczema, bullous pemphigoid, urticaria, and muscle tumors.'' Attempts continue to predict metal sensitivity in the individual patient so that the choice of material can be made accordingly. In vitro tests for metal allergies have been developed...

Colophonium and gum resins

Colophonium, a natural unmodified gum resin used in cosmetics such as mascara, lipsticks, creams, and hair removal products, is a known contact allergen. Modifications have been made to colophonium, resulting in a variety of ester gums. In a retrospective study, 1270 patients with leg ulcers were tested for contact allergy with colophonium and the modified ester gum Table 1. Contact allergy to ingredients of topical drugs and cosmetics 63 positive of 3135 patients tested alkylammonium amidobenzoate allergy may increase, owing to the use of milking cream as natural skin remedy Contact allergy in a patient who had used a para- contact allergy from allergy to related delayed type allergy allergy to soybean food allergy Contact allergy from Two other patients with cheilitis due to contact allergy to a lipstick reacted positively to glyceryl hydrogenated rosinate, an ester gum,

Other topical antifungal drugs

Captan is one of the older fungicides. It is used for pityriasis versicolor and is included in some soaps and cosmetics to provide bactericidal and fungicidal effects. It is allergenic. It is carcinogenic in mice, and in several countries control agencies have taken steps to prohibit its use in cosmetics and non-drug products (SEDA-13, 236).

Enuresil Amfetamine sulfate Enuretine Phenobarbital Environmental Tobacco Smoke

When administered orally, and its effects persist for several hours, in contrast to the shorter-acting norepinephrine. Since the 1920s synthetic ephedrine has been used in Western medicine as a bronchodilator and nasal decon-gestant and in controlling urinary incontinence. When its longer duration of action is desirable, ephedrine replaces epinephrine in non-emergency treatment of allergic reactions. Its slow action renders it useless in arresting acute allergic attacks. Because of its stimulant effects, ephedrine must sometimes be used in combination with sedatives. Ephedrine is a common ingredient in look-alike amfetamines. Ephedro-noctal Phenobarbital and Se-cobarbital.

Titanium in metal implants and prostheses

Metals from prostheses can continue to be released into the system for many years. The development of hypersen-sitivity takes time, and allergic reactions are usually delayed for weeks, months, or 1-2 years. The symptoms can assume a variety of forms. Local reactions can cause loosening of the device or local pain. Dermatological reactions include eczema, bullous pemphigoid, urticaria, and muscle tumors.'' Attempts continue to predict metal sensitivity in the individual patient so that the choice of material can be made accordingly. In vitro tests for metal allergies have been developed on the basis of lymphokine (MIF) release from sensitized T lymphocytes exposed to metal-protein complexes (8). About 6 of patients without a previous metal implant had positive reactions to nickel, chromium, or cobalt. However, it is still not clear whether such a positive reaction is a reliable predictor of clinical problems. In practice few patients have either local or systemic reactions when...

CNS effects of secondgeneration antihistamines

There is a widespread tendency to consider the second-generation antihistamines as non-sedating drugs. Indeed, when they are used in their recommended dosages in objective studies in healthy volunteers, the CNS depressant effects of fexofenadine (26C, 27C), loratadine (28r), and mizolastine (29R) appear to be no greater than those seen with placebo. However, the issue is further complicated by evidence that sedation in allergic disease (and subsequent impairment in performance and learning) may be a consequence of the condition itself, as opposed to being wholly due to antihistamines (2R). This raises concerns about the purported risk-free sedation profiles of certain antihista-mines, given that they are often based on objective studies in healthy volunteers (30R). Another issue is the tendency of patients with allergies to self-medicate, titrating their antihistamine dosage upwards to achieve relief of symptoms neurological impairment does in fact occur if the dose of cetirizine,...

Health Supplement Alert Melatonin

More, affecting any activity that requires mental alertness, such as driving. Although uncommon, allergic reactions to melatonin have been reported. The supplement should be stopped and emergency care sought if symptoms of an allergic reaction (eg, difficulty breathing, hives, or swelling of lips, tongue, or face) occur.

Therapeutic Mechanisms On The Transpersonal Level

Tanya, a 34-year-old teacher and divorced mother of two children, was undergoing LSD psychotherapy for depressions, anxiety states, and a prone-ness to fatigue. One of her LSD sessions brought an unexpected solution to a severe physical problem which had been considered purely organic in nature. For the previous twelve years she had been suffering from chronic sinusitis with occasional acute flare-ups because of colds or allergies. The sinus troubles had started shortly after her wedding and represented a severe inconvenience in her life. The major manifestations were headaches and strong pains in the cheeks and teeth, low-grade fevers, heavy nasal discharge, and bouts of sneezing and wheezing. On many occasions she was awakened by a coughing attack some mornings these symptoms lasted three to four hours. Tanya had numerous tests for allergies and was treated by many specialists with antihistamines, antibiotics, and flushing of the sinuses with disinfectant solutions. When all this...

Nickel in metal implants and prostheses

Nickel plays a major role in sensitization of patients. Even the small amounts present in cobalt chrome alloys often suffice to elicit allergic reactions. Reactions to cobalt are more generally toxic in nature (5). An increased rate of allergy to cobalt and nickel has been found in those patients bearing metallic implants who have developed bone infection in the surroundings of osteosynthesis material. Metals from prostheses can continue to be released into the system for many years. The development of hypersen-sitivity takes time, and allergic reactions are usually delayed for weeks, months, or 1-2 years. The symptoms can assume a variety of forms. Local reactions can cause loosening of the device or local pain. Dermatological reactions include eczema, bullous pemphigoid, urticaria and muscle tumors.'' A 35-year-old non-atopic diver with no previous history of metal allergy slipped on a wet pier and sustained a multiple compound trimalleolar fracture of the right ankle (6). The tibia...

The significance of stereoisomers of beta2adrenoceptor agonists

Regular exposure to a racemate, especially during or after an allergic reaction, will cause hyper-reactivity to spasmogens, and this could be due to an effect of the S-isomer. This effect is not seen immediately, because of beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated bronchodilatation by the R-isomer.

Chromium And Chromium Picolinate

Precautions Some people cannot convert chromium chloride or chromium from chelated supplements into the biologically active form, or GTF, that the body can use, in which case chromium should only be taken under a doctor's supervision, especially in cases of those who are diabetic. Chromium salts, which are an inorganic form of chromium, do not seem to be absorbed by the body very well and so are of little use as supplements. As people get older, they retain less of this mineral in their bodies. A few more things should be kept in mind cases of allergies to this mineral have been reported and the chromium content of brewer's yeast, though often high, varies among brands. There are no known symptoms of toxicity, attributable, perhaps, to the low absorption rate (about 2 percent of intake) however, ulceration of the nasal tissues and toxic levels can occur with long-time exposure in workers who deal with chromium in metal plating or making dyes. There is one case of a false-positive...

Toxicity of Herbal Drugs

The definition of toxic is ultimately a matter of viewpoint. Traditionally, herbs and herbal products have been considered to be nontoxic and have been used by the general public and traditional medicinal doctors worldwide to treat a range of ailments. The fact that something is natural does not necessarily make it safe or effective. The active ingredients of plant extracts are chemicals that are similar to those in purified medications, and they have the same potential to cause serious adverse effects. Whilst the literature documents severe toxicity resulting from the use of herbs, on many occasions the potential toxicity of herbs and herbal products has not been recognized 108 . In certain countries, such as Taiwan, herbs can be obtained from temples, night markets, street vendors, herbal stores, neighborhoods, or relatives, and from traditional medicine practitioners. Ordinary people recommend the medicines to others without safety considerations. The general public and many...

Adicto a drogas narcoticas Addicted to narcotics

The purified, active compounds are used clinically and are obtained from the adrenal glands of domesticated animals or prepared synthetically. The administration of adrenaline results in an increase in blood pressure by increasing the rate and force of contraction of the heart and by constricting the peripheral blood vessels. It also dilates the bronchioles and in this way is an aid to respiration. Adrenaline exerts a metabolic effect manifested by a rise in blood glucose. Noradrenaline elicits similar responses but its metabolic effects and actions on the heart are much less than those of adrenaline. The rise in blood pressure after the administration of noradrenaline is due to its powerful vasoconstrictor action. Adrenaline is used in combination with local anaesthetics because its vasco-constriction properties delay the absorption of the local anaesthetics, and in this way prolongs their activity and reduces their toxicity. It is useful in acute allergic disorders, such as drug...

Prescription Pain Relievers

Kitchen Chemical Codeine

Often the primary reason why opiate overdose results in death. A related problem is that opiates inhibit the cough reflex, which is why opiates are occasionally included in prescription cough medicines. (In fact, heroin was marketed as a cough suppressant in the late 1800s before its addicting properties led the U.S. government to ban it.) Other side effects of opiates are clouded thinking, constipation, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, lowered blood pressure, sweating, and an inability to urinate. Some opiates induce the release of histamine from immune cells (refer to Chapter 2). This can cause itching and allergic reactions. Finally, tolerance, dependence, and addiction are particularly troubling side effects of opiates.

Sarcolobus Globulosus

Tylogenine, a steroidal aglycone characterized from Tylophora sylvatica displays anti-allergenic properties (Gnabre JN et al., 1994) and inhibits the release of basophilic mediators, induced by immunoglobulin E for allergic reaction and the release of serotonine by basophile cells (IC50 39 M P

Immunomodulatory Effects of Phytocompounds

The traditional use of plants such as B. pilosa might confer beneficial effects by increasing nonspecific defense mechanisms. Bioactive compounds that stimulate the immune system are useful as adjuvants in the treatment of certain bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases in addition immunosuppressive compounds may be useful in situations in which immune responses are undesirable, such as transplant rejection, autoimmune diseases, or allergies.

Different Drug at Different Amounts

Dextromethorphan, as found in cough and cold medicines, is generally a safe and beneficial drug it is only dangerous if used beyond the suggested dosage listed on the product package. In fact, cough medicines are generally extremely safe with very few side effects. Because of their safety record, they are sold directly to consumers who have determined that they need the medicine. It is an accepted practice for people with colds, allergies, and headaches to treat themselves with OTC drugs there is no need for a doctor to write a prescription. DXM is an antitussive, a medicine that combats coughing. In small amounts, it treats coughing, itchy throats, runny noses, and congestion from colds, allergies, and the flu. It begins to work after approximately fifteen to thirty minutes, and acts to alleviate coughing for three to six hours.

Alkaloidum opii hydrochloridum Opium

Caine dependence is also a subject in Hannah and her sisters (1986). Allenfillina sedativa Phenobarbital. Aller-pred Phenobarbital. Allergassi Meprobamate. Allergasthmin Phenobarbital. Allergic reaction Common among intravenous drug abusers, mostly due to contamination and adulteration of the substances. Allergy An abnormally high sensitivity to certain substances, such as pollens, foods, or microorganisms. Common indications of allergy may include sneezing, itching, and skin rashes.

Anticholinergic Drugs

The efficacy of desensitization using subcutaneous maintenance venom immunotherapy is well established and is usually considered in patients with severe systemic allergic reactions to both yellow jacket and bee venom (grade III or IV according to Mueller). Among 160 patients who were mostly allergic to bee venom and who were assessed for systemic allergic reactions to sting challenges while increasing the intervals of maintenance venom immunotherapy from 4-6 weeks to 3 months there were no serious adverse events (71c). Two of 44 patients, who were deliberately stung during the 3-monthly maintenance therapy, had a mild systemic reaction. After withdrawal of venom immunotherapy, 22 patients allergic to bee venom were sting 11. Dubus JC, Marguet C, Deschildre A, Mely L, LeRoux P, Brouard J, Huiart L. Local side-effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic children influence of drug, dose, age, and device. Allergy Eur J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001 56 944-8. 13. Lipworth BJ. Adrenal...

Allergic To Everything

Allergic To Everything

The human body And Todays chemical infested world. Here is a news flash You are not allergic to pollen, pet dander, or whatever it is that makes your body revolt Rather, your body just can not handle that one thing, what ever it is, anymore, due to the massive barrage of toxic chemicals you and everyone else are ingesting every single day.

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