The Caltrop botanical family Zygophyllaceae

The L-tryptophan-derived alkaloid known as harman, and the Anthranilic acid-derived alkaloid known as harmine, occur in the Caltrop plant family (Zygophyllaceae R. Brown) (Table 18). It contains near 30 genera and more than 230 species, and grows worldwide, especially in the tropics, subtropics, warm temperate zones and dry areas. Harman and harmine occur in harmala pegan (Peganum harmala L.), the species belonging to the Pegan genus (Peganum L.). Alkaloids derived from acetate, dihydroschoberine and nitrabirine N-oxide have been found in the genus Nitraria (Nitraria Pall.) from the Siberian nitraria (Nitraria sibirica Pall.)131. In Nitraria komarovii (I. et. L.), komavine and acetylkomavine have been detected132

Table 17 General botanical characteristics of the Oleaster family

,312

Botanical Forms and Parts

Characteristics

Botanical forms

Trees Shrubs

Leaves

Alternate or opposite Exstipule

Regular

Unisexual

Calyx-tube

Drupe-like

With bony testa

Ex-albuminous

Straight embryo

Flowers

Fruits

Seeds

Table 18 General botanical characteristics of the Caltrop family312,313,316

Botanical Forms and Parts

Botanical forms

Some typical genera

Special characteristics

Leaves

Flowers

Fruits

Seeds

Characteristics

Shrubs

Some trees and sub-shrubs Annual herbs (rarely)

Balanites

Guaiacum

Fagonia

Kallstroemia

Larrea

Porlieria

Tribulus

Zygophyllum

Mainly in warm and arid regions

Stems often sympodial

Stems joined at the nodes

Xylem with vessels

Tracheids and fibres

Hairs

Opposite

2-ranked

Stipulate

Regular with 4-5 free sepals and petals

Bisexual

Capsules

Berries (rarely)

One-seeded

Endosperm present

Was this article helpful?

0 0
An Addict's Guide To Freedom

An Addict's Guide To Freedom

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Understanding And Getting Rid Of Addictions. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To New Ways To Understand Addicts And Get Rid Of Addictions.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment