The clinical application of alkaloids involves them as agents to regulate mescaric cholinergic receptor activity and repairing possible disturbances or to correct possible defects. Atropine, hyoscine and hyoscyamine may all have these kinds of applications.
Atropine blocks muscaric cholinergic receptor competitively and has a large spectrum of clinic applications. Atropine acts as a parasympatholytic on parasym-phathetically innervated organs. Therefore, the possible applications of atropine are as a general anaesthetic and include its use in pure form or as a component.
The muscarinic cholinergic receptor is competitively blocked by hyoscine and hyoscyamine. Both of these alkaloids are more active than atropine. The applications of these alkaloids for clinical purposes are connected with the induction of general anaesthesia. Clinical consideration should be paid to the fact that these alkaloids also affect the brain and thereby the central nervous system. Atropine crosses the blood-brain barrier. Hyoscine and hyoscyamine depress the motor areas of the cerebral cortex.
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