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Alkaloids occur in many other botanical families. Moreover, there are alkaloids derived from L-tryptophan which occur in mushrooms genera: Psilocybe mushrooms (Psilocybe), Conocybe mushrooms (Conocybe), Haymaker's mushrooms (Panaeolus) and Stoparia mushrooms (Stoparia). Serotonin, psilocin and psilocybin are basic alkaloids derived from these mushrooms (Figure 19). They are powerful psychoactive and neurotransmitter compounds. Recreational use of hallucinogenic mushrooms has been reported in several European countries, including England, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands and Germany191. Psilocybe semilanceata and Phanaeolus subbalteatus proved to be the only psilocybin-containing fungi that can be gathered in middle and northern Europe in sufficient quantities to permit abuse191.

Serotonin

Serotonin

N-CH3-CH3

Psilocin

Psilocin

N-CH3-CH3

Psilocybin

Figure 19. Basic alkaloids of mushrooms.

Psilocybin

Figure 19. Basic alkaloids of mushrooms.

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