Fungus and bacter

The fungi Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillium and Claviceps produce parasitic ergoline and ergotamine alkaloids. The ergot alkaloids derived from L-tryptophan in the fungus Claviceps purpurea, growing on grain in the ears of rye (Secale cereale), wheat (Triticum aestivum) or triticosecale (Triticale), are highly toxic (Figure 20). They have been used in the development of lysergic acid diethy-lamine, LSD, which is hallucinogenic and, in small doses, is used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Li et al.192 reported isolating a new alkaloid, asterrelenin, from Aspergillus terreus. Moreover, from this fungi species, terretonin, territrem A and territrem B have been also isolated. Two new diastereomeric quinolinone alkaloids have recently been identified from fungus Penicillium janczewskii obtained from a marine sample193. These compounds showed a low to moderate general toxicity. Dalsgaard et al.194 have recently reported of the isolation of communesins G and communesins H from the new species Penicillium rivulum Frisvad. The compounds were isolated by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC using UV-guided fractionation and subjected to antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer activity tests. In contrast to all other known communesins, communesins G and H were found inactive in these activities studied194. Sasaki et al.195 have isolated perinadine A from the cultured broth of c c

Lysergic acid diethylamide

Figure 20. Ergotamine and LSD.

Lysergic acid diethylamide

Figure 20. Ergotamine and LSD.

the fungus Penicillium citrinum which was separated from the gastrointestine of a marine fish. Citrinadin A, a pentacyclic indolinole alkaloid, has been isolated from the cultured broth of this fungus, which was also separated from a marine red alga196.

The bacteria Pseudomonas spp. produce tabtoxin and pyocyanine, alkaloids with a relatively powerful biological activity.

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