Naturam mutare difficile Seneca
Abstract: Alkaloid chemistry underlines the significance of the blocks, pathways and transamination reactions. The synthesis of the alkaloids is started from the acetate, shikimate, mevalonate and deoxyxylulose pathways. The main criterion for alkaloid precursor determination is the skeleton nucleus of the alkaloid. The following most important alkaloid nuclei exist: piperidine, indolizidine, quinolizidine, pyridon, pyrrolidine, imidazole, manzamine, quinazoline, quino-line, acridine, pyridine, sesquiterpene, phenyl, phenylpropyl, indole, j8-carboline, pyrroloindole, iboga, corynanthe and aspidosperma. Their synthesis occur in different pathways, which consist of a series of reactions and compounds as well as enzymes. The sequence of all reactions leading to any alkaloid synthesis is divided into precursor, intermedia, obligatory intermedia, second obligatory intermedia, alkaloid and its postcursors. The structural development of piperidine, indolizidine, quinolizidine, pyrrolizidine, izidine, pyrrolidine, tropane, imidazole, quinazoline, acridone, pyridine, sesquiterpene pyridine, phenyl and phenylpropyl, indole and manzamine alkaloids is presented in this chapter. Moreover, chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology models of alkaloid biogenesis in organisms is discussed and method of alkaloid analysis described. Alkaloids are natural products. They can be isolated, detected and modified. Modification of alkaloids by chemical and biological processes and bioengineering can produce new applications. Chemistry not only investigates alkaloids, their structures and activities, but also develops methods for their structural manipulation.
Key words: alkaloids, enzymes, genes, intermedia, metabolism, models, pathways, precursors, skeleton, synthesis
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