Quit Alcohol

Alcohol Free Forever

This powerful guide walks you step-by-step through exactly what you need to do to free yourself from your alcohol addiction without going through AA meetings or expensive sessions. There are three main types of relaxation techniques you can practice when you feel upset and stressed. If you practice regularly, they will become part of your lifestyle and you may find yourself habitually more relaxed as a result. Part 2 will exercise Neuro Linguistic Programming to release thoughts and a technique of progressive muscle relaxation also negative situations. Because of the mind body connection, exercises to relax the body will also flow through the mind. Much of the stress we feel is because of our resistance to certain feelings or emotions. Alcohol Free Forever is a lifesaver ebook. This guide was extremely eye-opening and the daily emails make it extremely easy to quit and to establish a routine that did not involve alcohol. Read more here...

Alcohol Free Forever Summary

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Author: Mark Smith
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Highly Recommended

I started using this ebook straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Problem drinking See Drinking problem Problem drugrelated See Drugrelated problem

Proheptazine citrate C17H25NO2 C6H8O7. Synthetic substance, under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight 467.5. Percentage of anhydrous base 58.9. See Opioids. Proheptazine hydrobromide C17H25NO2 HBr. Synthetic substance, under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight 356.3. Percentage of anhydrous base 77.3. See Opioids. Proheptazine hydrochloride C17H25NO2 HCl. Synthetic substance, under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight 311.8. Percentage of anhydrous base 88.3. See Opioids. Prohibition Policy under which the cultivation, manufacture, and or sale (and sometimes the use) of a psychoactive drug are forbidden (although pharmaceutical sales are usually permitted). Prohibition is also used to refer to religious proscriptions of drug use, particularly in Islamic...

Conventional CRHR1 Knockout Decreased Anxiety Related Behavior and Alcohol Problems

To investigate the physiological role of CRHR1 in both anxiety-related behavior and HPA system regulation, two mouse lines deficient for CRHR1 have been independently generated (Smith et al. 1998 Timpl et al. 1998). Their phenotype confirms the obligatory role of CRHR1 in both the stress-associated response of the HPA system and anxiety in particular, homozygous CRHR1 mutants display a severe impairment of stress-induced HPA system activation and marked glucocorticoid deficiency. In addition, homozygous mutants exhibit increased exploratory activity and significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior under both basal conditions and following alcohol withdrawal (Timpl et al. 1998). There is a relation between stress, anxiety disorders, and alcohol drinking. Stressful life events and maladaptive responses to stress influence alcohol drinking and relapse behavior (e.g., Kreek and Koob 1998) and there is a substantial comorbidity between anxiety disorders and alcohol abuse (Kessler et al....

Can Peyote Treat Alcoholism

Alcoholism affects all races and cultures, but it is particularly prevalent among Native American tribes. Some believe this to be a result of genetic factors others blame it on the introduction of alcohol to Native Americans by European settlers while still others blame it on the nature of Native American culture. Regardless of the cause, alcoholism is a serious health risk to any individual, as it can lead to liver problems and certain types of cancers, malnutrition, brain damage, and even death. Members of the Native American Church regularly use peyote to treat people with alcoholism or other types of drug addiction. They recommend that it be taken every day for a few weeks or months, with hopes that the person will be cured of their addiction. Despite anecdotal reports that peyote can be used to cure someone of alcoholism, scientific research suggests that psychedelic drugs, when given in a hospital or laboratory setting, rarely produce any changes in motivation or attitude that...

Medications for Alcohol Dependence

Three medications are now FDA approved for treatment of alcohol dependence disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. When the FDA approved disulfiram as a treatment for alcoholism, standards for efficacy studies were lower than they are today. The best evidence suggests that, although disulfiram is associated with a reduction in the number of drinking days in alcoholics who drink while taking it, compliance with medication, not the effects of disulfiram, is probably important for a better outcome. Naltrexone combined with structured psychosocial treatment has been associated with improvements in complete abstinence, less craving for alcohol when the patient was abstinent, and less drinking once drinking began. Psychosocial treatments that have proven particularly effective in combination with naltrexone are those, such as cognitive behavioral relapse prevention, that emphasize coping skills for handling various sources of relapse risk. The recommended dose is 50 mg per day. This agent...

Alcoholism Abstinence Versus Controlled Drinking

Until the 1970s therapists and researchers in the alcohol field accepted full and continuous abstinence as the only treatment goal for alcohol dependence. Every form of reduced use at the end of treatment was seen as complete failure and any renewed use after abstinence periods as a full relapse. This position became controversial when two young scientists published the results of a randomized clinical trial (Sobell & Sobell, 1973a, b) in which controlled drinking (CD) was not only observed but even supported as a treatment goal superior to traditional abstinence (not drinking ND ). Amazingly, after 15 years of heavy debate and intensive research, the scientific community lost interest in this topic. Publications between 1985 and the early 2000s that attempted to clarify the mysteries of the debate were quite rare. Only a few empirical papers (e.g., Kavanagh et al., 1996 Heather et al., 2000 Dawson et al., 2005), some reviews and special This entry reviews the early studies and...

Studies of Alcoholism Drinking Patterns and Drinking Problems

Literature review of studies reporting prevalence rates for alcoholism by age groups To assess changes in alcoholism rates over the life span Studies from different countries display a common pattern in that the quotient of alcoholics in relation to the population in a specific age group peaks before the age of 50 and decreases substantially thereafter The decrease of alcoholism in older age groups is not sufficiently explained by increased morality and potential treatment effects. There may be a process of spontaneous recovery driven by factors normally accompanying aging The data used did not allow for an exact estimation of the impact of factors such as increased mortality or potential treatment effects. The study presented a strong case against the notion of alcoholism as an inexorably progressive and irreversible disease Subjects who declined or were refused treatment for their alcoholism at the Maudsley Hospital (London) and a comparison group of clients who were treated at the...

Alcoholism

The acute and chronic toxicity profile of cannabis is described in Chapter 10 of this volume. Liver damage is not a prominent feature and it has been suggested that alcoholics might be encouraged to shift their dependence from alcohol to cannabis on grounds of increased safety, in a parallel with the substitution of methadone for heroin in addiction with the latter. There are no reports of individual cannabinoids being investigated in this respect. In spite of early reports of success in weaning alcoholics from their primary addiction (Mikuriya, 1970 Scher, 1971), subsequent findings are far from encouraging. Rosenberg et al. (1978) reported a trial in which 56 alcoholics were given disulfiram or cannabis, alone or in combination, in an attempt to wean them from alcohol. Cannabis proved ineffective at reducing alcohol consumption. Cannabis and alcohol are commonly used and abused together and surveys have shown that it is the most prevalent drug combination among adolescents and young...

Alphabetical Listings of Drugs

Polydrug abuse is a typical element of setting. For example, heroin addicts normally abuse other drugs as well. Someone who takes MDMA at a dance club may well take cocaine at the same time, just as some persons simultaneously smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Even if all the compounds inside an illicit user can be verified, determining which is responsible for which effect can be challenging. This book's alphabetical section presents both the conclusions and doubts that scientists express about polydrug use, along with some classic interactions that occur when more than one drug is taken at the same time. Individuals who get into a medical emergency after drug use should bring samples of substances to health care providers an item may not be what a user thinks it is, and effective treatment must be based on chemical reality rather than consumer belief.

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

Hepatotoxicity has occurred in chronic alcoholics after therapeutic dosages. The individual taking acetaminophen should avoid alcohol if taking more than an occasional dose of acetaminophen and avoid taking acetaminophen concurrently with the salicylates or the NSAIDs. Acetaminophen is classified as Pregnancy Category B and is used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation. If an analgesic is necessary, it appears safe for short-term use. The drug is used cautiously in patients with severe or recurrent pain or high or continued fever because this may indicate a serious illness that is untreated. If pain persists for more than 5 days or if redness or swelling is present, the primary health care provider should be consulted.

Grontologie Alert

Acetaminophen may alter blood glucose test results, causing falsely lower blood glucose values. Use with the barbiturates, hydantoins, isoniazid, and rifampin may increase the toxic effects and possibly decrease the therapeutic effects of acetaminophen. The effects of the loop diuretics may be decreased when administered with acetaminophen. Hepatotoxicity has occurred in chronic alcoholics who are taking moderate doses of acetaminophen.

Syndromes of Anxiety and Their Treatment

In sodas and chocolate, not just coffee and tea. Although you may feel calmer when you first drink alcohol, it causes a rebound anxiety when it wears off that may last for some days. The act of smoking may be a habit that relaxes you, but the nicotine in tobacco worsens anxiety. Cocaine, hallucinogenics, and amphetamines can make people acutely anxious during the period of intoxication.

Contraindications

Hydroxychloroquine is used cautiously in patients with hepatic disease or alcoholism and during pregnancy (Pregnancy Category C) and lactation. MTX is used cautiously in patients with renal impairment, women of childbearing age, and older adults or individuals who are chronically ill or debilitated. Penicillamine is used with extreme caution during pregnancy (Pregnancy Category C) and lactation.

General Information

Clomethiazole is a sedative-hypnotic that has been used extensively in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, as well as for inducing sedation and sleep in the elderly. In addition to GABA enhancement, which it shares with the benzodiazepines, clomethiazole also enhances the activity of another inhibitory amino acid, glycine. Whether this property is clinically important is uncertain. As well as the expected effects of sedation and memory impairment, it produces nasal irritation, especially in younger patients, in whom it has a shorter half-life. Its use in alcohol withdrawal is becoming less common, possibly owing to the demonstrated safety and efficacy of longer-acting benzo-diazepines, such as chlordiazepoxide, and alternatives such as carbamazepine.

Drug Drug Interactions Alcohol

Cocaine abusers have reported that alcohol prolongs the euphoriant properties of cocaine, while ameliorating the acutely unpleasant physical and psychological sequelae, primarily paranoia and agitation. It may also lessen the dysphoria associated with acute cocaine abstinence. It has also been proposed that concurrent alcohol abuse may be an integral part of cocaine abuse. The combination of cocaine with alcohol can cause enhanced hepatotoxicity In a double-blind study, subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for cocaine dependence and alcohol abuse participated in three drug administration sessions, involving intranasal cocaine with oral alcohol, cocaine with oral placebo alcohol, and cocaine placebo with oral alcohol (268). Cocaine plus alcohol produced greater euphoria and increased perception of well-being than cocaine alone. Heart rate was significantly higher with cocaine plus alcohol than with either alone. Cocaine concentrations were higher after cocaine plus alcohol than after...

Critical Thinking Exercises

Brown comes to the mental health clinic for a follow-up visit. She is taking lithium to control a bipolar disorder. Ms. Brown tells you that she is concerned because her hands are always shaking and sometimes I walk like I have been drinking alcohol. Explain how you would explore this problem with Ms. Brown.

State schedules USA Availability Prescription where legal

This quick-acting and long-lasting drug is widely used around the world for legitimate medical purposes. Flunitrazepam is prescribed to treat insomnia and anxiety, to relax muscles, to stop convulsions, and to calm people. In the 1990s it was Western Europe's most commonly prescribed calming and sleep-inducing medicine. The drug is administered to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and experimental use in treating depression has found flu-nitrazepam promising. Some unauthorized use of the drug is believed to be for self-medication of depression and low self-esteem. The drug has specialized usefulness in surgery as a medication given prior to administration of anesthesia, and its tendency to reduce pressure inside the eyeball can avert the rise caused by the anesthetic succinylcholine (important if patients are at risk for glaucoma). In hospice care where doses can be higher and more frequent than normal, flunitrazepam has reduced nausea and vomiting from cancer chemotherapy.

Pregnancy Category None

Clinical Toxicology 34 (1996) 562. Maxwell, J.C. Deaths Related to the Inhalation of Volatile Substances in Texas 19881998. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 27 (2001) 689-97. Wegener, E.E., K.R. Barraza, and S.K. Das. Severe Frostbite Caused by Freon Gas. Southern Medical Journal 84 (1991) 1143-46.

Pregnancy Category D

This antianxiety drug is also known for its sedative properties and is used to promote sleep and to fight convulsions. The substance is given to treat status epilepticus, a dangerous condition in which people have one epileptic seizure after another, back-to-back. It can reduce and sometimes even eliminate vomiting from cancer chemotherapy. Lorazepam has been used to treat LSD and methamphetamine overdose and has been a standard medicine to help alcoholics through the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Recreational sedative users report euphoria from lorazepam. When given experimentally in combination with other drugs, it has helped reduce depression. In contrast, experimentation using motion picture excerpts to evoke particular emotions found that lorazepam may reduce happy feelings and increase unhappy ones. One study found that lorazepam worked as well as alprazolam for treating panic attacks, and a case report tells of success in treating mania. Lorazepam has been used to cure...

Judge Asks Appeals Court to Void His Own Decision

After a month of testimony, Judge Joseph Durant of the 11th Judicial District upheld Gilbert's conviction. Nevertheless, he recommended appeal and hoped the Florida Supreme Court would have the courage and conviction to reverse his own decision. The judge added thai he would rather have his son smoke pot than drink alcohol,.

Promoting Self Change Taking the Treatment to the Community

As discussed in detail in Chapter 1, the vast majority of people with alcohol and drug problems are unlikely to enter traditional substance abuse or addiction treatment programs (Harris & Mckellar, 2003). Several major U.S. surveys have concluded that only a small percentage of individuals with alcohol problems ever seek and enter into treatment (Dawson, Grant, Stinson, et al., 2005 Raimo, Daeppen, Smith, Danko, & Schuckit, 1999). For example, of 4,422 adults 18 years or older classified with prior-to past-year DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the 2001-2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (Dawson, Grant, Stinson, et al., 2005), only 25.5 reported ever receiving treatment (12-Step programs 3.1 Formal treatment 5.4 both 12-Step and treatment 17.0 ). Another national survey found only 16 of those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) had received any treatment in 2001. Similarly, a recent report on utilization of AUD treatment in the Veterans Administration...

Self Change Approaches

Self-change approaches have long been part of many brief interventions that help substance abusers evaluate and guide their own behavior change (Apodaca & Miller, 2003 Fleming & Manwell, 1999 Heather, 1994 Heather, Rollnick, Bell, & Richmond, 1996 Sitharthan, Kavanagh, & Sayer, 1996 Sobell & Sobell, 1993, 1999). Factors associated with the development of self-change approaches have included (a) the need for interventions for individuals whose substance use problems are not severe, particularly those with alcohol problems (Sobell & Sobell, 1993, 1999, 2005), (b) demonstrations that, for many individuals, brief interventions are as beneficial as more intense interventions (Bien, Miller, & Tonigan, 1993 Fleming & Manwell, 1999 Miller et al., 1995 Moyer, Finney, Swearingen, & Vergun, 2002 Project MATCH Research Group, 1998a, b Saunders, Kypri, Walters, Laforge, & Larimer, 2004 Sobell, Breslin, & Sobell, 1998), and (c) an emphasis on self-control processes...

Community Mail Intervention Background and Rationale

The Promoting Self-Change (PSC) study, a community based mail intervention funded through the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, was conducted in Canada (Sobell, Cunningham, Sobell, et al., 1996). This large-scale community intervention was designed to promote self-change among individuals who were unwilling, not ready, or otherwise unmotivated to access the formal health care system in order to change their drinking. As will be discussed later, while the PSC intervention was designed for problem drinkers, several aspects of the project are relevant to prevention and harm reduction. For example, avenues and procedures that will attract individuals in the general public to consider changing their drinking on their own or with minimal help are likely to be very different from what traditional practices in the alcohol field would suggest. Finally, although the PSC community trial targeted problem drinkers, community interventions have also been successful with cigarette...

An Empirically Crafted Advertisement

As discussed earlier, when creating a message that will be accepted by the intended target audience (in the present study this was problem drinkers who have never been in treatment and who might be reluctant to seek traditional alcohol treatment services), the message cannot evoke resistance or it will be ignored and thus be ineffective. In this regard, the advertisement for the PSC study contained three messages, all of which were chosen to address issues or concerns we had anticipated in recruiting a group of heavy drinkers who had never accessed the health care system for their drinking. The first line of the ad, Thinking About Changing Your Drinking was chosen because it was felt that this message would not evoke resistance, would prompt people to think about their drinking, and attract the attention of those already thinking about changing. The second line read, Do you know that 75 of people change their drinking on their own This message was chosen because, despite the fact that...

Responding to Advertisements A Critical Event in Promoting Self Change

Until recently, little attention has been given to possible changes in drinking behavior due to reactivity. While a handful of studies have started to examine reactive effects due to assessments and follow-up interviews, the results have been mixed. Some studies have provided some indirect evidence that assessments and follow-ups may reduce alcohol use (Chang, Wilkins-Haug, Berman, & Goetz, 1999 Clifford et al., 2000 Connors, Tarbox, & Faillace, 1992 Epstein et al., 2005 McCambridge & Strang, 2005), while others have not (Hester & Delaney, 1997 Maisto, Sobell, Sobell, & Sanders 1985 Ogborne & Annis, 1988 Stephens, Roffman, & Curtin, 2000 Timko, Moos, Finney, Moos, & Kaplowitz, 1999). Near the end of the study, we became interested in what was attracting callers to the ads. After being screened for the study, 26.1 (458 1,756) of the remaining eligible callers were asked, When you saw the ad, what about it attracted you, and led you to call us Callers who...

Family Genetic Factors

One of the major risk factors for the development of an anxiety disorder is a family history of psychopathology. In several epidemiological studies the familial aggregation of anxiety disorders was demonstrated (Angst 1998 Kendler et al. 1997 Kessler et al. 1997 Bromet et al. 1998 Lieb et al. 2000b Wittchen et al. 2000a Chartier et al. 2001 Bijl et al. 2002). On the basis of the Munich EDSP-study, Lieb et al. (2000b) could demonstrate that offspring of parents with social phobia have an increased risk for social phobia vs offspring mentally healthy of parents (see Fig. 2). This study found, in addition, that risk for social phobia seems also to be elevated among offspring of parents with other psychopathology, e.g. other anxiety disorders, depression or alcohol use disorders, suggesting a familial cross-transmission of these disorders.

Public Health Implications of Community Interventions

Net savings of 520 million annually for the federal government (Medscape Medical News, 2006). A population approach to alcohol problems, however, would represent a shift from the alcohol field's longstanding clinical focus to a broader public health perspective. Given the positive results for both groups, it is reasonable to speculate that the change in participants' behavior occurred earlier than would have happened without the intervention, and therefore the anticipated costs of these participants' alcohol problems to society were reduced. For those for whom the intervention does not work, the level of care can be stepped up (i.e., more treatment or an alternative treatment). In this regard, close to one-quarter of the participants who were located for the 1-year follow-up reported they had their first help-seeking experience during that follow-up year (Sobell et al., 2002). This finding suggests that individuals whose problems were not resolved through the current self-help mail...

Mixed Topl2 Poisons or Inhibitors

The inhibitor disulfiram, a thiol-reacting drug, deserves a comment. This compound has been used in the therapy of alcohol abuse for more than 40 years. Now, it has been shown to inhibit both topi and top2 135 . Conceivably, the drug reacts with thiol (cysteine) groups of the enzyme, which impairs top catalytic action. Further studies are warranted to identify the protein residue(s) involved in the reaction with disulfiram and to assess the usefulness of this drug and its analogs as antineoplastic agents.

Comorbidity with Substance Use Disorders

Epidemiological studies have also documented the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. In the U.S. NCS, one in five people with a lifetime history of a DSM-III-R anxiety disorder fulfilled, in addition, diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence (range across specific forms of anxiety disorders 21 -30 ) and about 15 fulfilled criteria for drug dependence (range 15 -23 Kessler et al. 1996). In a more recent cross-sectional investigation of patterns of co-morbidity between substance use and anxiety disorders in six studies participating in the ICPE (Merikangas et al. 1998), the investigators found across all sites strong associations between anxiety disor ders and alcohol and drug dependence. The odds ratios (ORs) as a measure of association were ranging between 1.8 and 2.7 for alcohol dependence and between 3.3 and 5.2 for drug dependence. Considering the observed ranges of associations within the specific substance dependencies, the available...

PDFA Slickly Packaged Lies

In one ad, the wreckage of a train is shown. Now, everyone will agree that no one should attempt to drive a train while high on marijuana. But a man's voice says that anyone who tells you that marijuana is harmless is lying, because his wife was killed in a train accident caused by marijuana. This contradicts the direct sworn testimony of the engineer responsible for that disaster that this accident was not caused by marijuana. And it deliberately ignores his admissions of drinking alcohol, snacking, watching TV, generally failing to

Active Information Retrieval and Media Use as a Tool for Self Change

These sources can also be tapped by individuals trying to come to terms with their addiction problem on their own. Major advantages for many self-quitters are anonymity and the opportunity to compare advice. Young people and individuals living in remote areas are probably most inclined to use the Internet to improve their health status and possibly to handle problems with addictive behaviors. There are numerous websites for addiction information and counseling such as Smart Recovery, Web of Addiction, Moderation Management, and NHS Direct Online (Advice On-line, 2000). Behavioral self-control training has also been made available via the computer and could produce substantial reductions in the consumption of heavy drinkers. The Drinker's Check-Up is a brief motivational intervention designed to assist clients achieving moderation or abstinence (Saladin & Santa Ana, 2004).

A history of drug use in sport Sports medicine and morality in Britain

The pragmatic line taken by most interested parties was that sport needed to continue but the authorities had to clamp down on drug use. Suggestions that deeper problems needed to be solved first were ignored. Perhaps the best comparison is with alcohol use, where the deeper social problems that lead to addiction, that is homelessness, poverty, stressful domestic relations, macho cultures of binge drinking, have not been tackled by the punitive strategies such as banning drink-drivers. Nonetheless, British individuals were pushing forward anti-doping through media coverage, conferences and scientific research. Most significantly, the British sports establishment led the way in trying to find an accurate and applicable method for steroid testing.

Drug Testing Methodologies and Technology

As a result of the above-mentioned issues of cost and immediacy, drug courts have experimented with most of the testing methodologies in an effort to discover the most efficient means to achieve their testing agenda. Based upon the high concentration of drug metabolites present in urine, the basic ease of urine sample collection, the accuracy of urine testing, and the relatively low cost of testing a urine sample, urinalysis has become the primary choice of most drug courts. Drug courts have experimented with other matrices, such as hair, saliva, sweat, breath, and ocular scans. All of these methodologies have specific, limited value within a typical drug court. Because courts test multiple times per week and are concerned about new use, long-term methods such as sweat patches and hair testing have only minimal relevance in specific situations. Untimeliness of results, lack of long-term validity studies, and high cost have minimized the acceptance of saliva tests. Ocular scans have...

Self Perceptions of Motivation

A few studies have used the direct and intuitive approach of asking users their perceptions of marijuana's impact on their motivation. This research did not assess the many hypothesized facets of amotivational syndrome, such as lethargy, poor hygiene, and impaired social functioning. Yet these studies do reveal that a percentage of heavy users think that the drug saps their ambition or drive. Interpreting these results requires caution. Many of these participants used illicit drugs besides marijuana. They also could have suffered from unassessed conditions that undermined their energy or motivation. Nevertheless, members of every sample believe that the drug makes them less ambitious or dynamic. In one of the first studies of this kind, researchers interviewed 99 New Yorkers by phone. These people had used marijuana an average of 27 out of the previous 30 days. Eleven of these people (11 ) reported reduced energy and motivation. Yet alcohol consumption was not reported, and almost...

Other features of the patient

Chronic alcoholism is an important risk factor for adverse effects of the rifamycins. In 79 consecutive patients taking rifampicin in combination with isoniazid and another drug, there was a high incidence of acute clinical liver disease about half of the patients were advanced alcoholics and almost all the cases of hepatitis came from this group (91). Most of those with pretreatment abnormalities of liver function had abnormalities in liver biopsies, not attributable to alcohol. In one patient, active chronic hepatitis was attributed to rifampicin. However, in 531 eligible patients enrolled in a US Public Health Service Cooperative Trial of Short-Course Chemotherapy of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, of whom 58 were classified as alcoholic, although the alcoholics had more abnormal concentrations of aspartate transaminase before and during therapy, there was no significant difference between the alcoholics and non-alcoholics in the incidence of adverse reactions, including hepatotoxic...

Endocrine And Reproductive Systems

Many fundamental challenges remain in understanding the impact of alcohol and drugs on endocrine and reproductive function. Many factors can influence the degree to which drug or alcohol abuse can cause an abnormality of endocrine or reproductive function. These factors include (a) the amount and duration of consumption, (b) the route of illegal drug administration, (c) whether there is preexisting or concurrent damage to an endocrine reproductive organ, (d) concurrent use of another drug, and (e) genetic risk for an endocrine disorder. often our knowledge about these factors and how they interact with one another is more limited than what is known about the range of endocrine and reproductive dysfunction associated with the chronic consumption of alcohol and the abuse of illicit drugs. Alcohol. The anecdotal reports of changes in sexual function following alcohol consumption provided the stimulus for much of the research targeting hypothalamic-pituitary relationships because...

Cross Cultural Variation in Beliefs and Normative Behaviors

Ideas such as these vary widely, not just by culture, but also by historical era, population demographics, prevailing theories of medicine, the degree of socially approved latitude in behavior, and modes of social control (Good, 1986). For example, it is common for highland Peruvian peasants to chew coca leaves and ingest the juice as a necessary adjunct or stimulant to work whereas in the West, cocaine, the refined substance extracted from coca leaves, has not been generally accepted as a beneficial substance (Allen, 1988). In early nineteenth century Europe, absinthe was a fashionable drink among the urban middle class until it was banned decades later because of its deleterious, even deadly, effects on physical well-being and social life. Cigarette smoking by adults, especially males, is tolerated in most societies, whereas smoking by children or females is frequently punished (Marshall, 1987). Whether excessive consumption of alcohol is a disease, an addiction, or a symptom of a...

The Behavioral Effects of Psychotogens

In 1943 Albert Hofmann accidentally discovered the peculiar mental effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and set off a train of events culminating in world-wide interest in the actions of this drug. For the first fifteen years LSD was primarily a laboratory curiosity with interest centering upon the bizarre effects produced by extremely minute doses, of the order of one-hundred-millionths of a gram. Then during the 1950's some psychiatrists felt that a drug that could produce such a marked change in perception and thinking as does LSD might be useful in the treatment of psychiatric disorders needing reorientation. The therapeutic applications of LSD have not been widely extended for a number of reasons, including the difficulties in obtaining the drug, legal restrictions and the psychotic reactions attendant upon its administration. Tolerance develops rather rapidly so that chronic administration becomes a problem. Nevertheless, the drug has been used in a variety of psychiatric...

Ethnic Minorities and Mainstream Populations

How I started with my drinking was with the European, when I was only young then I get involved with European ways of living. In that time I got deeper and deeper involved in alcoholism. At the end I was stupid, I didn't know what was going on. I was blindfold by the alcoholic spirit. It's poison to us, mainly the Aboriginal people because we can't handle it, because it's not our culture in other words. (Brady, 1993a, p. 96)

Case 10 Drug Crime Can the Government Punish Addiction

The immediate consequence of Robinson was to preclude the government from punishing an individual for drug addiction or, by obvious extension, alcoholism but it also brought into doubt drug and alcohol-related crimes. Relying upon Robinson, for instance, a pair of federal appellate court cases decided in 1966 held that a chronic alcoholic cannot be punished for the crime of public drunkenness.33 One of these cases reduced the winning argument to syllogistic form Defendant's chronic alcoholism is a disease which has destroyed the power of his will to resist the constant, excessive consumption of alcohol his appearance in public in that condition is not his volition, but a compulsion symptomatic of the disease and to stigmatize him as a criminal for this act is cruel and unusual punishment.34 Similar arguments were made with regard to drug-related offenses, and the resulting confusion in the courts virtually guaranteed that the Supreme Court would have to address the issue of addiction...

Social Anxiety Disorder

This disorder is characterised by anxiety symptoms in social or performance situations, accompanied by a fear of embarrassment or humiliation. Situations are avoided or endured with distress. There may be a specific fear of one or two situations (most commonly public speaking), or of three or more situations in the generalized subtype. Epidemiological studies find this to be the most prevalent anxiety disorder among the general population (Magee et al. 1996). Its peak onset is around the time of adolescence, and the resulting impairments can have a profound effect on social and occupational development. If untreated it tends to follow a chronic, unremitting course. Social anxiety disorder is frequently comorbid with depression, other anxiety disorders, alcohol problems and eating disorders. It is associated with an increased rate of suicide that is significantly higher in the presence of comorbidity (Schneier et al. 1992).

Alternative Policy Regimes

The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 set the stage for policy experimentation.10 Some states remained dry, while others resorted to licensing requirements or state monopoly. The federal government employed taxes, tariffs, regulations, and license requirements. State governments imposed taxes and placed restrictions on the sale of alcohol. Regulations were placed on the potency of the product. For example, the potency of beer was limited to 3.2 percent in some states, although these regulations were primarily for taxation purposes. Additional interventions included age restrictions, advertising restrictions, local option, restrictions on the hours of sale, and price controls.11 Although legalization has been an improvement over prohibition, these interventions and the prohibition of other intoxicants, such as marijuana and cocaine, have resulted in mediocre results at best (see Sylbing 1985, and Sylbing and Persoon 1985). One benefit of legalization is the development of social...

Temazepam dimetilearbamato Camazepam

New temperance or neo-temperance has been used since the 1980s to characterize individuals and groups committed to greater alcohol control or a more coherent alcohol policy, or the shift in public sentiment reflected in many countries in a decline in alcohol consumption. Neo-prohibitionist is used more pejoratively for the same referents. Temperax Clobazam.

The Nature of the Syndrome

Epidemiological studies conducted in the last two decades have tracked trends in the prevalence of marijuana dependence. In the 1980s, the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study found that 4.4 percent of adults had been dependent on marijuana at some point in their lives (Anthony and Helzer 1991). About a decade later, the National Comorbidity Study estimated that 4.2 percent of the U.S. population met diagnostic criteria for marijuana dependence (Anthony et al. 1994). Whereas overall marijuana use was stable among the adult population in the 1990s, rates of dependence and abuse (as classified by the DSM-IV) increased significantly during the same period (Compton et al. 2004). These studies indicate that marijuana dependence is one of the most prevalent substance use disorders in the United States, exceeded only by nicotine and alcohol dependence.

A critique of elite sport

A number of quite diverse official discourses across a long time span, from the 'beastliness' of 18 th century vice to 'social determination' of modernist criminology, turn out to have one feature in common problematic activities are managed and discussed in ways that deny or silence the voluntary and reasonable seeking of enjoyment as warrantable motives. Governmental discourses about drugs and alcohol, in particular, tend to remain silent about pleasure as a motive for consumption, and raise instead visions of a consumption characterized by compulsion, pain and pathology. Problematic substance use is said to be caused not by pleasure-seeking but by such things as the 'slavery of the will' characteristic of alcoholics by the 'behavioural Early anti-doping pioneers did not like the drugs that were being used which had a poor reputation in society that reflected badly on sport. They did not like the extent of drug use that would lead eventually to all athletes feeling obliged to use...

REHABiLiTATioN And Treatment

There are two stages to rehabilitation from drug or alcohol abuse detoxification and recovery. Detoxification is the process of completely removing the drug from one's system. Only after he or she is freed of physical dependence from the drug can the process of recovery begin. Recovery involves learning about the nature of addiction in general as well as about the circumstances surrounding one's own addiction. This knowledge is invaluable in helping one identify harmful influences or patterns of behavior that increase his or her chances of using drugs again. Both detoxification and recovery are necessary to break addiction and return to a normal life.

Marijuana Treatment Project

Ninety-two percent of the study participants felt that they were currently dependent on marijuana. At the time of the screening, almost the entire sample (99.8 ) felt that marijuana was the biggest problem for them (relative to other drugs or alcohol). The group reported smoking marijuana on 82 of the past 90 days (91 of the days), smoked an average of 3.7 times a day, and reported that the number of days since their last smoking episode was 1.2. Use of other drugs and alcohol in the past 30 days was infrequent, in part because individuals who were concurrently dependent on alcohol or drugs other than marijuana were ineligible.

Outreach Access and Support Groups

Marijuana Anonymous (MA) groups, a mutual-help fellowship based on the principles and traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), exist in a number of States and internationally. In addition to traditional meetings, MA sessions are held on line. (The organization's Web site address is www.marijuana-anonymous.org. Its toll-free telephone number is 800-766-7669.) No research has been conducted yet to evaluate the effectiveness of MA, either alone or in combination with formal treatment. Nevertheless, research on AA suggests that mutual-help organizations can play an important role in recovery, both alone and in combination with formal treatment programs (McCrady and Miller 1993).

Comparison to Alcohol

The worst of which is alcohol, in both numbers of users and the anti-social behavior associated with extreme use. Alcoholism is the leading cause of teen-age deaths 8,000 American teenagers are killed each year and 40,000 are maimed from mixing alcohol and driving. (MADD, Mothers Against Drunk Driving SADD, Students Against Drunk Driving NIDA, National Institute on Drug Abuse, etc.)

Tools for Assessing Problem Severity or Adverse Consequences of Addictive Behaviors

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) This 10-item self-administered questionnaire takes approximately 3-5 minutes to complete. It addresses both past and recent alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related problems. Moreover, it identifies individuals drinking at high-risk l evels as well as those already experiencing consequences (Allen, Litten, Fertig, & Babor, 1997 Allen & Wilson, 2003 Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De La Fuente, & Grant, 1993). The AUDIT is available in English, French, German, Portuguese, and Spanish. AUDIT Alcohol Consumption Questions (AUDIT-C) This 3-item questionnaire is a shortened version of the 10-item AUDIT measure. The AUDIT-C uses the first three questions from the full AUDIT, which concentrates on levels of alcohol consumption rather than negative consequences that clients have experienced due to heavy drinking. This scale was developed, partially, as a quick screening tool for general medical practitioners to identify at-risk,...

Assessing Addictive Behaviors

One Alcohol Question Three studies have found that a single question such as Have you ever had a drinking problem results in more individuals being successfully identified as having an alcohol problem as opposed to more time-consuming screening tests such as the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (Cyr & Wartman, 1988 Taj, Devera-Sales, & Vinson, 1998 Woodruff, Clayton, Cloninger, & Guze, 1976).

United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention

The United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP) is a global leader in the fight against illicit drugs and international crime. Established in 1997, ODCCP consists of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP). ODCCP has approximately 350 staff members worldwide. Its headquarters are in Vienna and it has 22 Field Offices as well as Liaison Offices in New York and Brussels. ODCCP relies on voluntary contributions, mainly from governments, for 90 per cent of its budget. Mr. Pino Arlacchi has been the Executive Director of ODCCP and Director General of the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) since 1997. Unitranxene Clorazepate dipotassium. Unkie Colloquial term for morphine. Unregistered alcohol consumption Term for the alcohol consumption not registered in official statistics as homebred, illegal distilling, personal legal import (tax-free) and illegal import, and...

Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis Dependence

Reduced marijuana use in a subgroup of depressed alcoholics inhibitor significantly reduced marijuana use as well as depression and alcohol consumption in this subgroup, suggesting that daily marijuana use may result from an attempt to self-medicate for depression (see Table 1). Further controlled studies will be needed to assess the efficacy of fluoxetine in treating marijuana withdrawal symptoms.

Treatment for Marijuana Problems

Research on treatment may not reveal much about the way therapies proceed outside the research settings. For example, most drug programs must treat people with any sort of chemical dependence. Urban crack abusers may find themselves with rural alcoholics in the same facility. These people may experience different troubles that require markedly different interventions. In contrast, some research studies concentrate on participants experiencing problems with a single drug. This single-drug approach may prove more effective for marijuana problems. Treatments specifically designed for difficulties related to marijuana may attract more problem smokers than programs designed for addictions in general (Roffman & Barnhart, 1987). Perhaps problem marijuana users do not see themselves as comparable to people experiencing troubles with other drugs. Perhaps they are concerned that other participants addicted to crack cocaine, heroin, or alcohol might not take problems related to marijuana very...

Research on Treatment for Cannabis Problems

The relapse prevention and social support therapies were equally effective at minimizing marijuana problems. One difference between the two approaches did appear the relapse prevention group smoked marijuana fewer times per day than the social support group. Otherwise, the groups were equal in their numbers of problems and the number of days that they smoked. Over 60 of the participants remained abstinent for 2 weeks after a specified quit date. Nevertheless, only 14 actually maintained abstinence for the entire year after treatment. Some participants eliminated problems, even though they did not remain abstinent. People who reported no marijuana problems, and who cut the number of days they got high in half, were considered improved. Using these criteria, 36 of the sample appeared improved one year after treatment, 31 had been abstinent or improved for that entire year. Despite the decreases in marijuana consumption and problems, the sample reported...

Assessing Motivation and Readiness to Change

Interviewing Style Interviewing style is extremely important for obtaining accurate and useful information about individuals' substance use. The way in which questions are phrased can affect clients' answers. An important component of motivational interviewing is avoiding the use of labels. Individuals with substance use problems, particularly those whose problems are not severe, generally are reluctant to be labeled as alcoholics or drug addicts. Not only does labeling serve no therapeutic advantages, it should also be avoided because it has been associated with substance abusers delaying or even avoiding entry into treatment (Cunningham, Sobell, Sobell, Agrawal, & Toneatto, 1993 Sobell, Ellingstad, & Sobell, 2000 Sobell, Sobell, & Toneatto, 1992). Asking individuals with an alcohol or drug problem to Tell me about your use in the past year is more likely to elicit an open, candid dialogue about their use compared with asking, How long have you been an alcoholic (or drug...

Addiction Self Change Websites by Country North America

Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions (CASAA) < http www.casaa.unm.edu> . This organization's mission is to generate, convey, and apply knowledge to reduce suffering related to addictions and improve the quality of life for those affected by addiction. The website has a vast amount of downloadable materials. Tel. (505) 925-2300. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health < http www.camh.net> . 33 Russell St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S1, Canada. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information < http www.health. org> , < telnet.ncadi.health.org> , < ftp.health.org> , < info prevline.health.org> . This organization is the Information Service division of the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It serves as the central point in the federal government for information about alcohol and other drug problems. Many of the publications can be obtained free of charge by calling the toll free number (...

Other Candidate Systems

So far only one study has investigated pharmacogenetic aspects of benzodi-azepine treatment. This study was conducted in children of alcoholics and measured the effects on eye movement measures (Iwata et al. 1999). A SNP leading to an amino acid exchange in the GABAa receptor a6subunit was investigated. The authors observed that this SNP was associated with less diazepam-induced impairment of saccadic velocity, concluding that this polymorphism may play a role in sensitivity to benzodiazepines. It is difficult to judge the relevance of these data for anxiety disorders. On the one hand the sample size is small (n 51) and on the other hand the subjects all had a family history of alcoholism. It has been previously shown that a family history of alcoholism may be associated with a diminished sensitivity to benzodiazepines (Cowley et al. 1992 Cowley et al. 1994). Studies on the effects of GABA receptor subunit genotypes on the anxiolytic effects and addiction potential of benzodiazepines...

Twelvestep Facilitation

Facilitation as an effective strategy for minimizing alcohol problems (Project MATCH, 1998). It would likely generalize to those experiencing negative consequences from marijuana. Membership in the fellowship enhances outcomes for alcoholics and likely helps problem users of cannabis (Morganstern, Labouvier, McCrady, Kahler, & Frey, 1997). Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step programs designed for drugs other than alcohol are quite similar. Although few formal studies address success rates, members of Narcotics Anonymous and Marijuana Anonymous report successful abstinence from marijuana. Mental health professionals recommend twelve-step treatment for people experiencing marijuana problems, suggesting considerable confidence in the program (Miller, Gold, & Pottash, 1989). The success of social support treatment implies that the supportive aspects of Marijuana Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous would help problem users. Perhaps generalizing from the studies of Alcoholics Anonymous...

Winged lion Colloquial term for LSD on paper

Winners Colloquial term for Al' and other 12 Step groups newcomers are recommended to search for persons who have demonstrated their capability to not just stay sober, but also to achieve a large measure of serenity and happiness while doing so - these latter are described as 'winners. drinking alcoholic.

Sexual and reproductive function

Ironically, some of the drugs that increase a teen's risk of engaging in sexual activity can also impair his or her sexual and reproductive functioning. A large number of studies have shown a link between alcohol use and sexual dysfunction. According to Medications That May Contribute to Sexual Disorders, a 1997 article in the Journal of Family Practice, chronic alcohol abuse can suppress normal hormonal functions such as sexual arousal. It can also reduce the size of the testes. The 2003 Health Professionals Follow-up Study reported that impotence was more common among men who drank alcohol.

Pregnancy Category C

In the 1960s human addiction to dextromethorphan was dismissed as highly unlikely. Subsequently, researchers who documented behavior of rats exposed to drug combinations concluded that dextromethorphan has abuse potential. Human addiction has indeed been reported, although this is described as unusual. Scientists have not found dependence or withdrawal symptoms. A rat study determined that dextromethorphan can reduce alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and experiments with rats and mice show that dextromethorphan can reduce morphine withdrawal symptoms. One human study found that dextromethorphan by itself did not relieve methadone abstinence, but different research shows that in combination with other substances dextromethor-

Senecio praecox See Palo Bobo

Serotonin uptake inhibitor A drug that inhibits neuronal re-uptake of serotonin, and consequently prolongs its action. Drugs of this class have been reported to be capable of reducing alcohol consumption. Certain antide-pressants inhibit both the uptake of serotonin and that of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Serpatillin Methylphenidate hydrochloride. Serpatonil Methylphenidate hydrochloride. Serpax Oxazepam.

Imino2 phnyl5 oxazolidinone4

Imperial Group Leading British manufacturer of tobacco products, including Player and Embassy cigarettes, Wilson's snuff, and several brands of cigars. Its other products included beer, prepared foods, and packaging. Corporate headquarters are in London. Impfen German colloquial term for adding opium to hashish. Import Colloquial term for crack. Impotence Inhibited sexual excitement in a man during sexual activity that, despite an unaffected desire for sex, results in inability to attain or maintain a penile erection. Impotence can result from psychological factors (performance anxiety or fear of abandonment or unwanted pregnancy), sociocultural factors (negative sexual attitudes or religious beliefs) or, less frequently, physical causes such as hormonal abnormalities, drug abuse and alcoholism. Treatment of impotence depends on the underlying cause. Many drugs are used as aphrodisiaca. Central stimulants lika amfeta-mine and cocaine initially acts as sexual stimulants but can have...

The Portrayal of Alcohol and Drug Users in the Media

Advertising for smoking and alcohol is subject to various restrictions in some countries and it is generally claimed that only brand-specific market shares are at stake (Godfrey, 1995). Although there are no studies showing how advertisement exposure affects recovery, one can speculate that self-change from nicotine and alcohol problems might be more easily accomplished where cues for use are less frequent. The images of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use presented on television, radio, and in print can be understood both as a reflection of and major influence on public opinion about substance use.

Pergastric sedante Diazepam

Peridyne Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital. Peril Colloquial term for Dexedrine. Perilla Solandra. Periodex Phenobarbital. Periodic drinker Person whose consumption of alcoholic beverages occurs at seemingly regular intervals (weeks or months apart), but then is typically identical with other alcoholics - some theories suggest that this may indicate a person who is self-medicating, however no present conclusive proof of this theory exists.

Serotonin As A Neurotransmitter And Psychoactive Agent

Tryptophan Dmt Serotonin

Disorders such as violent alcoholism, anxiety, depression, and suicide. Decreased serotonergic activity can stem from too little tryptophan entering the brain, too little serotonin produced from available tryptophan, aggressive uptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft, or excessive activity of the enzymes that metabolize serotonin. Increased serotonergic activity, however, can be induced by pharmacologic means, and this is the primary goal of modern antidepressant medications.

Halcion 0125 Triazolam

Deal of scientific research with these hallucinogens in psychotherapy. LSD was used in the treatment of alcoholism, to reduce the suffering of terminally ill cancer patients, and in the treatment of autistic children. Controversy arose over social aspects of the drugs. A drug subculture sprang up surrounding these hallucinogens in the 1960s. Further research indicated that the side effects of these drugs were more serious than previous research had indicated, and that human experimentation was somewhat premature. As a result, many of the hallucinogens were limited to scientific use, with pharmaceutical manufacture strictly regulated. The effects of any hallucinogen and the users's reaction to it can differ significantly among individuals, and can range from ecstasy to terror. In fact, during any one hallucinogenic episode, a user is likely to experience various psychic and emotional reactions.In low doses, the hallucinogens produce a spectrum of effects depending on the properties of...

Stinkende Hofart Tagetes

Stomp on some brain cells Colloquial term for drinking alcoholic beverages to intoxication. Stopp-90 Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Pentobarbital. Stopped Colloquial term for barbiturate. Stoppers Colloquial term for depressant. Stories (the) 1. Alcoholics Anonymous the latter half of the book Alcoholics Anonymous, upon which AA is based, contains stories from the lives of individuals with whom others may be able to relate and begin recovery. 2. 12 Step group term description of what events transpired in the life of the recovering person before recovery could begin. Storm Colloquial term for heroin. Storm Petersen, Robert (1882-1949), Danish artist who used the signature Storm P. In his drawings he often pictured Skid Row alcoholics with a warm humor. His main character was the alcoholic Perikles who have been extensively used in the marketing of the beer Tuborg with she slogan Perikles can you tell me when is a Tuborg tasting best...

Lay down the hustle Colloquial term for drug dealing

Classical novel by Selma Lafgerlof. 2. Film released in 1924. Original title Gosta Berlings Saga. Alternative titles The Saga of Gosta Berling, The Story of Gosta Berling, The Atonement of Gosta Berling. Director Mauritz Stiller. Classical swedish silent movie. Long, complex and elaborately produced, the film nonetheless never loses sight of the human elements which motivate the story. Lars Hanson stars as Ber-ling, a defrocked alcoholic priest whose rebellious attitude hides a greater sense of idealism than most of his pious contemporaries. Among the women in Berling's life is a supposedly married countess, played with instinctive brilliance by a young, awkward, chubby Greta Garbo. Filled to overflowing with betrayals, revenge, and regeneration, The film made MGM to invite director Mauritz Stiller and star Greta Garbo to Hollywood-though in typically callous big-studio fashion. Legless Colloquial term for the difficulties to stand and walk after...

Lorazepam methylsulfonate Lorazepam mesilate

Loss of control See Control, loss of. Lossen, William German chemist that after the death of his college Albert Niemann 1861 continued the research on cocaine. Lost Weekend, the Film released in 1945. Director Billy Wilder. Ray Milland as Don Birnam, a troubled novelist with a drinking problem. Escaping fromthe apartment his worried brother (Phillip Terry) has confined him to for the weekend, Don makes his way to his favorite tavern, where he knocks back drink after drink, transforming from a trembling wreck into a garrulous charmer into a brutish lout. For the remainder of the weekend, he sinks further and further into his drunkenness, resorting even to stealing money from a prostitute to keep himself plied with liquor. Lote Colloquial term for cache of drugs. Lotiven Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Meprobamate. Lotoquis Phenobarbital. Lotoquis S Phenobarbital. Lotus-eater Since LSD is not an approved drug, its therapeutic applications...

Opium thebaicum Opium

Ortopsique Diazepam. Ortrin Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Pentobarbital sodium. Ortedrine Amfetamine. Ortenal Drug containing more than one substance under international control Amfetamine sulfate and Phenobarbital. Orzolon Methaqualone hydrochloride. Osley Colloquial term for LSD. Osmond, Humphrey American psychiatrist and one of the most enthusiastic proponent for the use of LSD in psychiatric treatment in the 1950s. He also coined the word psychedelic. Osomiate Artemisia mexicana. Ospalivina Morphine. Ossazepam Oxazepam. Ossicodone Oxycodone. Ossidndrocodeinona Oxycodone. Ossimorfone Oxymorphone. Osteoporosis Disorder in which the normal replenishment of old bone tissue is disrupted, as it usually is throughout life, resulting in weakened bones and increased risk of fracture. It is most common in women after menopause, although it can also occur in younger women and men. It is aggravated by a variety of...

Physical And Emotional Contraindications

There are some indications that individuals with severe liver damage have a tendency to prolonged LSD reactions, because the liver plays an important role in detoxifying LSD and excreting it from the body. Some researchers therefore tended in the past to screen out persons with insufficient liver function associated with cirrhosis, a history of hepatitis, or other pathological conditions. Our experience with chronic alcoholics and cancer patients, many of whom had considerable liver damage, indicated that this factor is negligible unless the dysfunction is of a critical degree. psychotic problems and a psychotic disposition. An example of this was the situation at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. There the number of LSD sessions for all categories of subjects except cancer patients was limited by the research design to three. The center had laboratories and treatment suites, but no bed facilities. In the case of a prolonged reaction or other complications, LSD patients had to...

Macropiper methysticum Synonym for

Magnan, Jaques Joseph Valentin (18351916), French psychiatrist who conducted studies on alcoholism and absinthism, and the double-dependence on morphine and cocaine. He ha also defined Magnans syndrome. Magnans syndrome The typical tactile hallucinations in cocaine psychosis. The patient believes that small animals are present on or under the skin and continuously scratches himself. Named after Jaques Joseph Valentin

Abu Ali alHusayn ibn Abdallah ibn Sina See Avicenna

Abusive drinker Alcohol abuser, pejorative term implying alcohol abuse. Abusus Latin for abuse, sometimes used in older medical terminology as abusus alco-holicus or abusus narcoticus. The term was used to describe a limited misuse as compared to the more chronic alcoholismus and narcomania. Abusus alcoholicus Latin, older diagnostic term for an alcoholic habit not yet developed to full alcoholism (alcoholismus). Abusus narcoticus Latin, older diagnostic term for a drug habit not yet as severe as narcomania. ABV Acronym for Alcohol By Volume. ABW Acronym for Alcohol By Weight. Abyssinian tea From Abyssinian, Ethiopian. Tea made from the leaves of khat. AC Acronym for Alcoholics for Christ, a 12 Step group similar to AA, but recognizing Jesus Christ as the higher Power. ACA See Child of an alcoholic. Acacia niopo See Niopo. Academy of TV Arts & Sciences antidrug program American organisation that has a program for educating members about the media glamourization and tolerance of...

Square dancing tickets Colloquial term

Squires extract Patent medicine introduced in the 1840s by the British pharmacist Peter Squire. It contained cannabis and was used against lost appetite, insomnia, menstrual pain and was also used during child-birth. It was also recommended to cure alcoholism and morphinism. Stepping Stones Former home of Bill and Lois Wilson (the Bill W, co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous) - near Katona, NY, USA - became a state landmark in 1985. Stepping stone drugs Drugs which are conducive to users trying other.drugs, drawn from the data that many of users of a drug previously used another drug (the early one is the stepping stone). Steps (the) 12 suggested Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12 Step groups. Steraphen Phenobarbital. Sterben German colloquial term for being identified.

Tranquilizantes 1 Colloquial term for

Drugs that slow down the central nervous system (CNS), and thus are similar to such other CNS depressants as alcohol and barbiturates. The term major tranquillizer was formerly applied to drugs used to treat severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia. However, these drugs are now more commonly called neuroleptics their action specifically relieves the symptoms of mental illness, and they are rarely misused for other purposes. Anti-anxiety agents share many similiarities with barbiturates both are classified as sedative hypnotics. These newer agents were introduced under the term tranquillizer because, it was claimed, they provided a calming effect without sleepiness. Today, tranquillizers have largely replaced barbiturates in the treatment of both anxiety and insomnia because they are safer and more effective. The degree of sleepiness induced depends on the dosage. Tranquillizers are also used as sedatives before some surgical and medical procedures, and they are sometimes used...

Erva maligna Cannabis

Es wurde gekrugt German colloquial term for drugs transported by truck. Esakuna Drug made of the flowers from the African and Asian herb Cymbopogon densiflo-rus. In Tanzania the flowers are smoked, sometimes mixed with tobacco. The active substances are not yet known. Esar Turkish colloquial term for a combination of sweets and hashish. Esbelcaps Fenproporex and Diazepam. Escabarb Phenobarbital. Escama Spanish colloquial term for cocaine. Escape drinking See Drinking, escape. Escapism The avoidance of reality through daydreaming, fantasy, or entertainment. Escapist Colloquial term for a drug addict. ESBRA Acronym for European Society of Biological Research on Alcoholism. Escobal Opium, mixed alkaloids of. Escobar, Pablo (1949-1993) Leader of the Medell n cocaine cartel. In 1991 he turned himself in to the authorities 19 on the promise of President C sar Gaviria Trujillo that he would not be extradited to the United States for trial despite evidence that he and his cohorts have killed...

Pharmacology and general adverse effects

There is an association between the illicit use of metamfetamine and traumatic accidents. A retrospective review of trauma patients in California showed that metamfetamine rates doubled between 1989 and 1994, while cocaine showed a minimal increase and alcohol a fall. Metamfetamine-positive patients were most likely to be Caucasian or Hispanic and were most commonly injured in motor vehicle collisions. The authors recommended intervention strategies, similar to those used for preventing alcohol consumption and driving, in order to minimize morbidity and mortality (12).

Codeinum monohydricum Codeine Codeinum phosphoricum Codeine phosphate

Codependent A relative, close friend, or colleague of an alcohol- or drug-dependent person, whose actions are defined by the term as tending to perpetuate that persons dependence and thereby retard the process of recovery. Symptoms include difficulty identifying and expressing feelings, perfectionism, difficulty maintaining close relationships, feeling overly responsible, need for approval, power-lessness, difficulty adjusting to changes.In the early 1970s, the terms co-alcoholic and co-alcoholism came into use among those treating alcoholism in USA to characterize close relatives of the alcoholic (initially the wife in particular). With the shift in terminology from alcoholism to alcohol dependence, codependent and codependence came into use, also referring to relatives of those dependent on other drugs. Use of the term implies an attributed need for treatment or help, and some have proposed classifying codependence as a psychiatric disorder. The term is also now used figuratively to...

Norpipanone hydrobromide C16H17NO

Synthetic substance, under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight 416.4. Percentage of anhydrous base 80.6. See Opioids. Norpipanone hydrochloride C16H17NO HCl. Synthetic substance, under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight 372.0. Percentage of anhydrous base 90.2. See Opioids. Northern Lights Colloquial term for ex-tremly high grade marijuana. Noren, Lars (b. 1944) Swedish poet and playwriter. His early poetical works Syrener, sno (Liliacs, snow) 1963, Encyklopedi 1966, and Stupor 1968 was drug-inspired with a flew of hallucinations. In the afterword to Kung mej och andra dikter (King me and other poems) 1973 he distance himself from the psychedelic experiments in the 1960s. In his autobiograophical series of plays Modet att doda (The courage to kill) 1980, Natten ar dagens mor (The night is the mother of the day) 1983 and Kaos...

Clormetaminodiazepoxid Chlordiazepoxide

Clorofenidato Methylphenidate. Closed meeting 1. Colloquial term for 12 step meeting for alcoholics only or those who think they have a problem with alcohol. 2. Colloquial term for NA meeting for addicts CND Acronym for United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs. CNS Acronym for Central Nervous System. COA Colloquial term for Child of an alcohol. COAF Abbreviation for Children of Alcoholics Foundation.

Animal Tranquilizers Colloquial term for

Anodynia absence of pain. anodynic, adj. Used as a synonyme to analgesic. Anodynos-DHC Hydrocodone bitartrate. Anoesia e potu A form of delirium exhibited by alcoholics according to C F Flemmings in 1844. Anoxine-T Phendimetrazine bitartrate. Anoxy Abscense of oxygen. A total lack of oxygen. Seen in drug-overdoses. ANPA Acronym for the French National Association for the Prevention of Alcoholism. Anphin Buprenorphine. Anpieken German colloquial term for 1. Giving a person the first injection of an illegal drug. 2. Giving a person an injection. ANS Amobarbital.

Cigarro grueso de marijuana Colloquial

A chronic disease of the liver characterized by the replacement of normal tissue with fibrous tissue and the loss of functional liver cells. It can result from alcohol abuse, nutritional deprivation, or infection especially by the hepatitis virus. Cirrhosis can result in gastrointestinal disturbances, emaciation, jaundice, and edema. It is irreversible, but supportive treatment includes diet control, vitamins, diuretics (to remove accumulated fluid), and beta blockers (to control gastrointestinal bleeding). Cirrhosis is a common cause of death. 2. Chronic interstitial inflammation of any tissue or organ. New Latin Greek kirros, tawny (from the color of the diseased liver) + -OSIS. Cisco Colloquial term for alcoholic beverage which contains 20 alcohol by volume - apparently bottled like wine coolers to be deceptive -caused alcohol poisoning in many youths.

Biospasm Phenobarbital sodium Bioaler Phenobarbital Bioavailability

The degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available at the physiological site of activity after administration. Biocalyptol-pholcodine Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control Pholcodine. Biocapton Fenetylline hydrochloride. Biochemistry The chemistry of living organisms and life processes. Also called biologic chemistry, physiologic chemistry. Biocide Pentobarbital sodium. Biocodon, -e Hydrocodone bitartrate. Biodramina D Dexamfetamine sulfate. Biofosfale sedativo Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital. Biohamat, -e Meprobamate. Biologic half-life The time required for the body to eliminate one half of a dosage of any substance by regular physical processes. Also called metabolic half-life. Biological marker A biological compound or attribute that provides evidence of the presence of, or vulnerability to, a specific disorder. In general, two types of marker are...

Cocaethylene Immunologic Hepatic And Cardiac Effects

Percent of the nation's 17 million heavy drinkers also abused illicit drugs, including cocaine. Use patterns for the combination of alcohol and cocaine appear to differ according to the form ofcocaine that is abused (Gossop et al., 2006). Users of powder cocaine appear to increase both alcohol and cocaine consumption when the two agents are used concurrently whereas users of crack cocaine decrease their consumption of alcohol during high-dose episodes. Crack cocaine users are also likely to reserve alcohol for use at the end of crack-using sessions (Gossop etal., 2006).

Druggist 1 A pharmacist 2 One who sells drugs

Original title Yoidore Tenshi. Director Akira Kurosawa.Takashi Shimura plays an alcoholic doctor, running a fleabitten clinic in the slums of Tokyo. Shimura tries to pull himself together long enough to save the life of young hoodlum Toshiro Mifune.The doctor feels that, by saving Mifune, he is retrieving a portion of his own lost youth and idealism. Drunking Colloquial term for gross intake of alcohol for the purpose of getting drunk. Drunks Film released in 1995. Director Peter Cohen. An Alcoholics Anonymous meeting provides the framework of this slice-of-life drama. The meeting is seen from start to finish as it takes place in the dingy basement of a church. The plot is adapted from screenwriter Gary Lennon's play Blackout. As each member of the group gets up to tell his or her story (and many of them are wrenching) it is plain to see that alcoholism affects many different kinds of people regardless of cultural background or social standing. At...

Afrikanische Juckbohne Mucuna pruriens

Aftercare Treatment or care given to convalescent patients after release from a hospital or an institution. Aftercare is of great importance to prevent relapses in alcohol and drug abuse. Scheduled follow ups, sometimes in combination with drug-testing, are often an integral part of a treatment programme. Many institutions strongly recommend participation in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous.

Cocaine Dependence Syndrome In

Cocaine Anonymous 12-step group focuses on cocaine dependence. Modelled after Alcoholics Anonymous. Cocaine Cowboys Film (1979) Director Ulli Lommel. Aboput a rock gorup smugglling cocaine. trhe film was shot in Andy Warhols apartement and Warhol does also act in the film.

Problems In The Evaluation Of Clinical Results

Disagreement about the potential and efficacy of LSD therapy has been one of the most striking aspects of the LSD controversy. Professional literature discussing the clinical significance of the drug falls into three distinct categories. The first group of publications consists of enthusiastic reports by LSD therapists according to whom remarkable and relatively quick results have been achieved in the therapy of emotional disorders, not only those that usually respond to conventional treatment but also many that otherwise have a very poor clinical prognosis. In some LSD studies, the success reported with chronic alcoholics, heroin addicts, subjects with severe character disorders, criminal recidivists, and individuals dying of cancer was quite dramatic. The second group of articles on LSD therapy involves those studies that produced essentially negative clinical results, and tend to deny the enthusiastic reports of the first group. Finally, the third group of clinical reports on LSD...

Cannabis indicae herba Cannabis

Cannon Colloquial term for a huge joint Cannon, James (1864-1944), American clergyman, a zealous prohibitionist, and a foe of Democratic presidential candidate Alfred E. Smith. He was elected a bishop in 1918 and retired in 1938. Bishop Cannon was a foremost Anti-Saloon Leaguer and head of the World League Against Alcoholism. During the 1928 presidential campaign, he delivered violent tirades against Alfred E. Smith, an outspoken wet, who advocated repeal of the Prohibition Amendment. Canny Colloquial term for cannabis. Cano Colloquial term for vein for injection. Canoe Colloquial term for when a joint gets a hole in the side and looks like a canoe. Canquil Meprobamate. Canquil-400 Meprobamate. Cans Colloquial term for packets with opium. Cantar 1. Colloquial term for warning other drug-users about police agents in the area. 2. Colloquial term for sing - to tell police about associates in drug sales. From cantar,

Alcoholic amblyopia See Amblyopia Alcoholic amnesia See Blackout

In non-tropical countries in which alcohol consumption is substantial, alcohol use is a dominant cause of cirrhosis, Because of under-recording of the alcohol connection, total cirrhosis mortality rather than cirrhosis with mention of alcoholism is often used as an indicator of alcohol problems. See also Jellinek formula. Alcoholic dementia Diagnose F10 7 in ICD 10. A term of variable usage, most com Alcoholic epilspy See Delirium Tremens. Alcoholic fatty liver Accumulation of fat in the liver following exposure to hazardous levels of alcohol intake, with consequent enlargement of liver cells and sometimes hepatomegaly, abnormal liver function, nonspecific abdominal pain, anorexia, and less commonly jaundice. Definitive diagnosis can be made only on histological examination of the liver. Alcoholic hallucinosis See Hallucinosis. Alcoholic hepatitis A disorder of the liver characterised by liver cell necrosis and inflammation following chronic consumption of hazardous levels of alcohol....

Bolsillas de diez dolares Colloquial term

Boozing Colloquial term for drinking alcoholic beverages excessively or chronically. Alteration of obsolete bouse, liquor, drinking bout, from Middle English bousen, to drink to excess, from Middle Dutch busen. Boppers Colloquial term for amyl nitrite. Bopping Colloquial term for use of amyl or butyl nitrite. Bottle Colloquial term for amfetamines. Bottle buddies Colloquial term for alcoholic's drinking companions who back the alcoholic during trying circumstances (female alcoholics do not generally have bottle buddies). Bottle gang Colloquial term for group of Skid Row alcoholics especially a group of homeless men who gather to share a common bottle.

Roter aufgerichteter Lwe Colloquial

Row Colloquial term for cocaine. Rox Colloquial term for crack. Roxane Colloquial term for cocaine (probably from Roxane, the authorized American medical manufacturer). Roxanne 1. Colloquial term for cocaine. 2. Colloquial term for crack. Roxanol Morphine sulfate. Roxicodone Oxycodone hydrochloride. Roxyn Metamfetamine hydrochloride or Metamfetamine racemate hydrochloride. Royal Colloquial term for heroin. Royal Temple Ball Colloquial term for cannabis resin mixed with LSD into a ball. Royal blue Colloquial term for LSD. Royal blues Colloquial term for LSD. Roygin Meprobamate. Roz Colloquial term for crack. RR Rational Recovery, rational emotive therapy used as an alternative to Alcoholics Anonymous.

Fiorinal wcodeine Butalbital

Flash, to pick the Colloquial term for initial condition after drugs take effect. Flashbacks Post-hallucinogen perception disorder, a spontaneous recurrence of the visual distortions, physical symptoms, Ioss of ego boundaries, or intense emotions that occurred when the individual ingested hallucinogens in the past. Flashbacks are episodic, of short duration (seconds to hours), and may duplicate exactly the symptoms of previous hallucinogen episodes. They may be precipitated by fatigue, alcohol intake, or marijuana intoxication. Post-hallucinogenic flashbacks are relatively common, especially after use of LSD and have also been reported for coca paste smokers.

Mustang gold Cannabis

Mutual-help group A group in which participants support each other in recovering r maintaining recovery from alcohol or other drug dependence or problems, or from the effects of another's dependence, without professional therapy or guidance. Prominent groups in the alcohol and other drug held include Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Al-Anon (for members of alcoholics' families), which are among a wide range of twelve-step groups based on a non-denominational, spiritual approach. Mutual-help groups in the alcohol field date back to the American Washingtonians of the 1840s, and include such Europe-based groups as Blue

Wir Kinder von Bahnhof Zoo Autobiographical book published under the pseudo

Colloquial term for heroin. 2. Colloquial term for cocaine. Witch hazel Colloquial term for heroin. Witch hunt Colloquial term for Al-Anon term searching the house for liquor bottles in a vain attempt to control the alcohol consumption of an alcoholic - expensive and does not solve the problem.

Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa

Heavy drinker Euphemistic term about someone's drinking -sometimes used by a drinker to justify his her lesser consumption as normal or moderate. See Drinking, heavy. Heavy drinking See Drinking, heavy. Heavy drug 1. Colloquial term for heroin. 2. Colloquial term for injected drugs in gen

Austria Germany and Switzerland

Controlled Consumption of Illegal Drugs < http www.kiss-heidelberg.de> . This website is targeted at individuals with drug problems as well as drug treatment professionals. It provides information especially about the KISS program, a 12-session individual and group treatment approach for controlled consumption of illegal drugs. Also, free downloads of power point slides and articles as well as addresses of therapists offering KISS treatments are available. Controlled Drinking (CD) < http www. kontrolliertes-trinken.ch> . This website is intended for people with alcohol problems, health professionals, and the media. It contains the following basic information about CD, three German-speaking behavioral self-control programs for CD (bibliotherapy, individual treatment, and group treatment), diverse self-tests (e.g., AUDIT, online Blood Alcohol Concentration calculation, drinking diary), a 15-item questionnaire for deciding on direction of change (i.e., abstinence or controlled...

Rohr aus Syrien Arundo donax

Rosacea Chronic vascular and follicular dilation involving the nose and contiguous portions of the cheeks may vary from mild but persistent erythema to extensive hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, seen especially in men as rhinophyma and by deep-seated papules and pustules accompanied by telangiectasia at the affected erythematous sites. One of the causes is alcoholism. From Latin rosaceus, rosy. Rosafarbenes Dreieck Colloquial term for LSD on paper.

The Researchers Get Together International Conferences

From Sid and me, and had done far more wild experimenting than we had thought of. Keith Ditman from UCLA had replicated Humphry's and Abram Hoffer's work where Skid Row alcoholics turned dry under one high dose LSD, no-therapy session, and 50 were dry one year later (alas, Humphry was in England, but Abram was there). T.T. Peck from Texas and Robert Murphy of Pennsylvania had even given LSD to young children (T.T. Peck also had a series of pregnant women who had benefited from it). They were on our side of the table. Hy Denber had read Ron Sandison's work and had seen ours he had worked with mescaline himself, and he could agree with the therapy camp. Cornelius van Rhijn had come from Holland to tell of his dark room experiments and his complicated theories about the unconscious. Gregory Bateson, ex-husband of Margaret Meade and anthropologist in his own right, saw things differently, as might be expected. Charles Savage kept using that bright mind of his to insist on definitions and...

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