To be caught in a snowstorm Colloquial

term for cocaine.

To party Colloquial term for having good time while using alcohol or drugs.

To-Shka Colloquial term for a drug made frompsilocybine mushrooms.

Toa Floripondo.

Toa-toé Brugmanisa insignis.

Toak Colloquial term for taking a draw from a joint of marijuana.

Toat Colloquial term for smoking marijuana. Toaten Colloquial term for cannabis-intoxication. TOBACCO

Introduction History Botany Health effects

Tobacco Dependence Syndrome TOBACCO Introduction Tobacco is a substance consisting of the dried leaves and stems of the plant Nicotinia tabacum, which contains the drug nicotine. The plant is native to North

America, but now is grown aroundthe world. Nicotine is a powerful nerve stimulant and is extremely toxic. Two to three drops of pure nicotine, if taken all at once, are enough to kill the average person. Nicotine has been classified as one of the most addictive drug in existence. There are three principal ways to consume tobacco smoking, chewing and dipping, and snuffing. Allthree ways produce approximately equal blood nicotine levels in tobacco users. Smoking

Inhalation of tobacco smoke from pipe, cigar or cigarette has been identified as the single most preventable cause of death and disease. Cigarette smoke contains more than 300 known poisons, including such substances as nicotine, arsenic, cyanide, carbon monoxide, phenol and formaldehyde. Cigarette smoking is such an enticing habit that few smokers realize they are addicted - until they are hooked. Chewing

Looseleaf tobacco and "dipping" moist, ground snuff tobacco are two common ways to use tobacco without smoking. Many consume smokeless tobacco under the mistaken impression that it is safer than cigarette smoking. Smokeless tobacco contains powerful chemicals, including nicotine, nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dozens of other carcinogens, that can injure tissues in the mouth and throat. Despite users' erroneous impressions about differing health risks in cigarettes and smokeless tobacco the health risks presented by smokeless tobacco use are substantial, and cigarettes and smokeless tobacco cannot be meaningfully compared. The oral use of smokeless tobacco represents a significant health risk. It is not a safe substitute forsmoking cigarettes. It can cause cancer and a number of noncancerous oral conditions and can lead to nicotine addiction and dependence. Snuffing

A dry powdered tobacco is "snorted" and brought into contact with the nasal passageways and the nicotine is absorbed through the epithelium in the upper nasal passages. Cigarette smoking is the major single cause of cancer mortality. Many people fail to recognize the traumatic effect that cigarette smoke and nicotine have on the circulatory system. Cardiovascular problems such as high-blood pressure, heart disease, stroke and circulatory deficiencies are common in cigarette smokers. Chronic obstructive lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis are 10 times more likely to occur in smokers than in non-smokers. Smoking during pregnancy also poses mserious risks. Spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weights, and fetal and infant deaths all are more likely to occur when a pregnant woman smokes. Use of smokeless tobacco causes serious oral health problems, such as oral cancers, leukoplakia, enamel erosion and tooth loss, gingivitis, halitosis and gum ulcers. Because nicotine is present in msmokeless tobacco all the cardiovascular problems associated with cigarette smoking can develop as well. Environmental Tobacco Smoke - commonly referred to as "second-hand smoke"- is the No. 1 airborne carcinogen, killing more people than all other forms of air pollution combined. This involuntary smoke is a cause of disease, including lung cancer in healthy non-smokers. Many workplaces and other businesses that serve the public are now considering smoking-control ordinances to protect the health of non-smokers. Children of smokers, forced to breathe second-hand smoke, have more respiratory problems and miss more school than do children of non-smokers. It is estimated that smokers' children miss about three additional days of school per year, the equivalent of seven weeks of school over the 12 years mof primary and secondary schooling, due to exposure to cigarette smoke in the home. The fact that smoking cigarettes interferes with one's sense of smell is well known, smokers lose 15 to 20 percent of their sense of smell. In many contries federal law requires a system of warnings on cigarette packages and advertising. In the USA the warnings begin with "SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING," and are followed with: 1) "Smoking Causes Lung Cancer, Heart Disease, Emphysema, and May Complicate Pregnancy," 2) "Smoking byPreg-nant Women May Result in Fetal Injury, Premature Birth, and Low Birth Weight," 3) "CigaretteSmoke Contains Carbon Monoxide," or 4) "Quitting Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risks to Your Health." Prevention of other illegal drugs use begins with the prevention of tobacco and other gateway drug use. Gateway drugs are drugs that serve as almost essential social and psychological precursors to use of other drugs, such as marijuana, heroin and cocaine, although the link between the gateway drug and the other drug is not biochemical. TOBACCO - Botany Tobacco is the term for a number of species of Nicotiana or the cured leaves of several of the species that are used after processing in various ways for smoking, snuffing, chewing, and extracting of nicotine. Common tobacco is Nicotiana ta-bacum, native to South America, Mexico, and the West Indies. Wild tobacco is Nicotiana rustica, the species cultivated by the Indians of eastern North America and presently cultivated in Turkey, India, and several European countries. These two species were described by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753. Other species, such as Nicotiana attenuata, Nicotiana tri-gonophylla, and Nicotiana quadrivalvis, have been used for smoking by the Indians of western North America. Ornamental, flowering tobaccos are N. sylvestris and Nicotiana alata grandiflora. All species of Nicotiana are probably native to the Western Hemisphere except several species native to Australia. Common tobacco may grow to a height of 4 to 6 feet (1 to 2 m) when not topped. The flowers, which are borne in a panicle and are normally self-fertilizing, are usually pink but may be carmine or white. The leaves of some of the large varieties may reach a length of 2 to 3 feet, with a width of about half the length; but some of the Turkish, or Oriental, kinds, as grown commercially, may be less than 3 inches (7.6 cm) long.

N. rustica varies from 2 to 4 feet in height and usually develops suckers, or axillary shoots. The leaves are thick and broadly oval; the flowers are pale yellow to greenish. Both common tobacco and N. rustica have an epidermal covering of hairs, some of which are glandular and secrete a viscid liquid. Both species may have a high alkaloid content; that of N. rustica tends to be higher. Tobacco is high in ash content, which ranges from 15 to 25 percent of the leaf on a waterfree basis. Flue-cured tobacco is rich in sugar, the cigarette grades having 15 to 20 percent or more. Cigar tobaccos are high in nitrogenous compounds but are almost free of starch and sugars.

If leaf tobacco is not bought in ready-stemmed form, the first step in turning it into a product that the consumer can smoke, chew, or take as snuff is to remove midribs (central veins). For most products, manufacturers blend leaf of various types, origins, grades, and crop years to obtain the qualities that they require and to assure uniformity over the years. Cigarette manufacturers usually add sweetening preparations and flavourings and process the tobacco in a variety of secret ways before it is fed, as finely shredded rag, into the cigarette-making machines. Preparation of tobaccos for pipe smoking and chewing is as varied as the assortment of these products. Their manufacture may involve the incorporation of additives and the application of pressure and heat. Snuff is usually made by fermenting fire-cured leaf and stem, and grinding it; salts and flavourings may be added. Cigars are made by wrapping a binder leaf around a bunch of cut filler leaf and overwrapping with a fine wrapper leaf; on all but the finest cigars the work is largely mechanized.

TOBACCO - Health effects At present, 1998 it is estimated that tobacco kills over 3 million people per year. Based on current trends, however, the death toll will rise to 10 million deaths per year by the 2020s or 2030s, with 70% of those deaths occurring in developing countries. According to WHO estimates, there are approximately 1. 1 thousand million smokers in the world - about one-third of the global population aged 15 years and over. Globally, approximately 47% of men and 12% of women smoke. In developing countries, available data suggest that 48% of men smoke as do 7% of women, while in developed countries, 42% of men and 24% of women smoke. According to the World Bank "Unless smoking behaviour changes, three decades from now, premature deaths caused by tobacco in the developing world will exceed the expected deaths from AIDS, tuberculosis, and complications of childbirth combined.

Tobacco is a risk factor for some 25 diseases and while its effects on health are well known, the sheer scale of its impact on global disease burden may still not be fully appreciated. No single disease is expected to make such a giant claim on health as this one risk factor. Estimates indicate that tobacco is already responsible for about 2.6% of the total death and disease burden, and that it is projected to triple its share to 8.9% of the total by the year 2020. For each 1 000 tonnes of tobacco produced, about 1 000 people will eventually die. In the more developed countries, the impact of tobacco on the health of men is being manifested at present, although it has yet to reach its peak among women. The epidemic is only now beginning in low- and middle-income countries. The biggest and sharpest increases in disease burden are expected in China and India, where the use of tobacco has grown most steeply. If current trends continue, two to three million annual tobacco-caused deaths are predicted for China alone by the 2020s. The risk at the individual level is even more alarming. Based on current data, lifelong smokers, on average, have a 50% chance of dying from tobacco And half of these will die in middle age, before age seventy. Smokers who die from smoking before age 70 will lose, on average, 22 years of normal life expectancy.

Of all the diseases causally associated with smoking, lung cancer is the best known. However, smoking actually causes more deaths from diseases other than lung cancer. In 1995, there were 514 000 smoking-caused lung cancer deaths in developed countries, compared to 625 000 smoking attributable deaths from heart and other vascular diseases in the same year. Studies in the United Kingdom have shown that smokers in their 30s and 40s are five times more likely to have a heart attack than non-smokers.

Smoking is a known or probable cause of death from cancers of the: oral cavity, larynx, lung, oesophagus, bladder, pancreas, renal pelvis, stomach, and cervix. Smoking is also a cause of heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive lung diseases and other respiratory diseases, and low-birthweight babies. Smoking is a probable cause of peptic ulcer disease, unsuccessful pregnancies, increased infant mortality (including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

All tobacco products contain substantial amounts of nicotine, which is absorbed readily from tobacco smoke in the lungs and from smokeless tobacco in the mouth or nose. Nicotine has been clearly recognized as a drug of addiction, and tobacco dependence has been classified as a mental and behavioural disorder according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10 (Classification F17.2). Experts in the field of substance abuse consider tobacco dependence to be as strong or stronger than dependence on such substances as heroin or cocaine. Smoking typically begins in adolescence. If a person remains smoke-free throughout adolescence, it is highly unlikely that he or she will ever begin smoking. Therefore, it is vital that intensive efforts be made to help young people stay smoke-free.

Although 75-85% of smokers, where this has been measured, want to quit and about one third have made at least three serious attempts, less than half of smokers succeed in stopping permanently before the age of 60. Nicotine dependence is clearly a major barrier to successful cessation.

Smoking control policies should contain strategies to strengthen smokers' motivation to quit, such as health education, public information, price policies, smoke-free policies, and behavioural programmes. In addition, there is evidence to indicate that, where appropiate, the use of pharmacological treatments, particularly nicotine replacement products, can ease physical dependence-related difficulties for smokers who try to quit. In order to achieve successful cessation of smoking on a very large scale, special "cessation programmes" are far from enough. Currently, only a few health professionals are trained in the treatment of tobacco dependence. All health professionals, including doctors, dentists, nurses, and, pharmacists, should be given both basic and in-service training so that they are capable of providing advice and/or treatment for tobacco dependence. Tobacco dependence is a serious public health problem which warrants serious attention if the epidemic of tobacco-related mortality and morbidity is to be reduced. Smoking cessation has immediate and substantial health benefits, and dramatically reduces the risk of most smoking-related diseases. One year after quitting, the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) decreases by 50%, and within 15 years, the relative risk of dying from CHD for an ex-smoker approaches that of a lifetime non-smoker. The relative risks of developing lung cancer, chronic obstructive lung diseases, and stroke also decrease, but more slowly. Ten to fourteen years after smoking cessation, the risk of mortality from cancer decreases to nearly that of those who have never smoked. Smoking cessation shows a beneficial effect on pulmonary function, particularly in younger subjects and the rate of decline among former smokers returns to that of never-smokers. Recent evidence shows that ceasing before the age of 35 is of greater benefit than ceasing at a later time, but there are still substantial benefits, no matter at what age one quits tobacco use.

Environmental Tobacco Smoke, ETS contains essentially all of the same carcinogens and toxic agents that are inhaled by the smoker. Involuntary exposure to ETS is also a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy non-smokers. In addition, ETS can result in aggravated asthmatic conditions, impaired blood circulation, bronchitis, and pneumonia. The children of parents who smoke have an increased frequency of respiratory and middle-ear infections and symptoms, and are at risk of impaired lung function. ETS is also a cause of additional episodes and increased severity of symptoms in asthmatic children. Babies born to women who smoke during pregnancy, as well as those infants exposed to ETS, have a much greater risk of dying of sudden infant death syndrome.

TOBACCO AND HEALTH: THE FACTS

How many smokers?

1. 1 billion smokers worldwide.

In developed countries, 41% of men and 21%

of women regularly smoke cigarettes.

In developing countries, 50% of men smoke, and 8% of women.

The number of women who smoke is increasing in many countries. How many cigarettes?

6000 billion cigarettes are smoked every year. In developed countries annual consumption of cigarettes dropped from 2800 cigarettes per adult in the early 1980s to 2400 in the early 1990s.

In developing countries, accounting for three-quarters of the world's population, per adult consumption rose from 1150 cigarettes per year to 1400, and is still increasing at 1. 7% per year.

How many deaths are caused by tobacco? About 3 million deaths a year now, with about one-third of them in developing countries. If current smoking trends persist, approximately 10 million a year in 30 to 40 years, with about 70% of them in developing countries. Cigarettes currently cause just under 20% of all deaths in developed countries. SMOKERS HARM OTHERS AS WELL AS THEMSELVES

Environmental tobacco smoke causes lung cancer and other diseases in individuals exposed to second-hand smoke; exacerbates allergies and asthma.

Maternal smoking is associated with a higher risk of miscarriage, lower birth-weight of babies, and inhibited child development; parental smoking is also a factor in sudden infant death syndrome and is associated with higher rates of respiratory illnesses including bronchitis, colds, and pneumonia in children. Every ten seconds, another person dies as a result of tobacco use. Currently, tobacco products kill about 3 million people a year, and this number is increasing. Unless current trends are reversed, that figure is expected to rise to 10 million per year by the 2020s or early 2030s, with 70% of those deaths occurring in developing countries. That means that a failure to take serious preventive action will result in approximately 100 million people per decade dying unnecessarily and prematurely by the decade of the 2030s, or perhaps a little earlier. Recent data confirm that the risks of smoking are considerably higher than previously thought, especially when smoking begins during adolescence. Persistent smokers have a one in two chance of eventually being killed by cigarettes.

Smoking, in fact, has been named as the single largest preventable factor in premature death, disability, and disease.

The negative health consequences of smoking are not as immediate as with other hazardous substances. There is a 30-40 year delay between the onset of smoking and the deaths that it causes. Therefore, the health risks of tobacco use are vastly underestimated by the public, and even by many of the authorities who are responsible for protecting and pro moting public health. This is one of the reasons why tobacco products are still widely available and why lenient tobacco policies have been allowed to occur. Smoking rates have declined among adults in developed countries; however, the tobacco industry has been quick to shift their attention to other markets, and smoking prevalence has increased in many developing countries. In developed countries, an estimated 41% of men and 21% of women are smokers. In developing countries, the corresponding estimates are 50% of men and 8% of women. However, female smoking prevalence is on the rise, particularly in many developing countries. It has been proven that tobacco companies have been very successful in promoting smoking as a sign of women's increasing independence and equality. Unfortunately, that equality will be exhibited in mortality rates. As demonstrated by the developed countries, if women smoke at the same rates as men, they will die at the same rate as men.

The combination of increasing affordability and modern advertising and promotion plays an important part in recruiting children and adolescents into tobacco use. The aggressive marketing of tobacco products along with their increasing affordability has been successful in enticing young people to begin smoking. At first, they are not concerned with the long-term health risks. However, by the time they realize the deadly repercussions of smoking, they are hooked on a highly addictive drug. If those teenagers continue smoking throughout their lives, then half will die from tobacco use. Of these, half will die in middle age and half will die in old age (over 70), losing about eight years of life expectancy. Those in the former category will lose 20-25 years of life expectancy. Tobacco is not just a cause of death in old age but in many countries, is the leading cause of premature death.

China, with an economy which has been one of the fastest growing in recent years, illustrates the challenge we face. From 1985 to 1992, cigarette consumption per adult dropped by 13% in highly developed countries, but at the same time increased by 20% in China. For every cigarette less smoked in highly developed countries, three cigarettes more were smoked in China. If current trends persist, two to three million annual tobacco-caused deaths are predicted for China by the 2020s. These trends also translate into approximately 50 million of the young people under twenty years of age alive today in China dying prematurely from the consequences of smoking. TOBACCO - History When Christopher Co lumbus discovered the Americas, he found the natives using tobacco in much the same manner as it is used today. The American Indians believed it to possess medicinal properties, which was the main reason for its introduction into Europe. Tobacco was important in Indian ceremonies, such as the smoking of the pipe of peace. Evidently the natives of North and South America had developed crude methods of tobacco culture. Tobacco-growing's extension to practically all parts of the world began with its introduction into Europe: France, 1556; Portugal, 1558; Spain, 1559; and England, 1565. Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Lisbon in whose honour the genus Nico-tiana was named, is said to have sent the seed of N. tabacum to Catherine de Médicis, the queen consort and regent of France. Portuguese and Spanish sailors took tobacco from Europe to all parts of the world. There are no available records as to early tobacco culture outside Europe, but the beginnings of tobacco culture by European settlers in America took place in the following areas on the dates indicated: Santo Domingo, 1531; Cuba, 1580; Brazil, 1600; Jamestown, Virginia, 1612; Maryland, 1631 Tobacco soon became the chief commodity exchanged by the colonists for European manufactured articles.

Overproduction was an economic problem from the beginning. After the American Revolution tobacco culture expanded from the colonial areas in Virginia and Maryland into Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Ohio, and Missouri. Tobacco leaves were originally air-cured-left to dry in a barn or shed for several weeks. Later, smoke from a wood fire was used (fire curing), thereby enabling the leaf to withstand long ocean voyages by sailing ship. About 1825 the fire-curing method was modified in parts of Virginia and North Carolina by the use of charcoal, which eliminated the effect of smoke on the taste and aroma of the leaf. The method was further modified after the American Civil War by the introduction of a furnace with metal flues. A light, air-cured leaf known as White Burley appeared about 1864, after a farmer in Brown County, Ohio, found individual tobacco plants that were deficient in green coloring. These plants, when cured, manifested a light yellowish-red color, and the cured leaf was porous, extremely absorptive, and highly suitable for use in manufacturing mixtures for chewing and smoking. It has also been suitable for use in manufacturing the popular American blended cigarette.

Under the 1700s snuff was the tobacco preparation in fashion, it was used at the royal course often by ladies, Snuff-boxes often with erotic motifs became popular. Under the 1800s the cigar-smoking became popular among the upper-classes. The hand rolled cigarette was invented in the 1700s in Spain but it was not until the industrial revolution at the end of the 1800 that the mass use of cigarettes begun. In the 1900s cigarette smoking became fashionable and advertising where intense. Women began to smoke as a part of womens liberation. It was not until the 1960s that the long suspected health risks with tobacco were understood -especially the tobacco induced lung-cancer.

During the 1990s the tobacco smoking among men in the western world has declined and became socially unacceptable. The impact of environmental smoke has lead to the ban of smoking in workplaces and public places. The political pressure on the tobacco industry has also lead to regulations of advertising. In Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe the smoking has increased.

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