Chupalla Agave

Chupar Mexican colloquial term for smoking drugs.

Chur ganja Cannabis. Chur-gunjah Cannabis. Church Colloquial term for a LSD paper with a cross on it.

Churchwarden Colloquial term for a person who attends an addict during a LSD-trip. Churchyard trip Colloquial term for an overdose with fatal outcome. Churrus Hashish.

Churus Colloquial term for marijuana. Chus Hashish.

Chutazo Colloquial term for heroin. Chutras Cannabis. Chutsao Cannabis. Chyptran Secobarbital sodium. Ch'ang Chinese name fo Calamus. Ch'ang-jung Calamus. Ch'ang-p'u Calamus.

CI Colloquial term for confidential informant in the drug scene.

CI-395 Phencyclidine or Phencyclidine hy-drochloride.

CI-400 Eticyclidine hydrochloride. CI-421 Tenocyclidine. CI-705 Methaqualone hydrochloride. CIA Acronym term for: Irish and alcoholic -reference to large number of alcoholic persons of this persuasion. Cialdini Phenobarbital. Ciazepam Diazepam.

CIBA-Geigy AG Swiss multinational holding company created in 1970 in the merger of two concerns headquartered in Basel-Ciba AG and J.R. Geigy SA. The group consists of affiliates in some 50 countries and is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of dyes and chemicals; pharmaceuticals; plastics and additives; agricultural chemicals and fertilizers; photographic products; and household and garden products and toiletries. Ciba 1. Pharmaceutical industry CIBA-Geigy AG. 2. Colloquial term for hydromorphone (Dilaudid). 3. Colloquial term for glutethimide (Doriden).

Ciba rita Colloquial term for Ritalin. Ciba-34 Colloquial term for hydromorphone (Dilaudid).

Cibalgin, -a, -e Allobarbital. Cibas Colloquial term for Doriden. Cibil Anadenanthera colbrina. Cibrium Chlordiazepoxide. Ciclobarbitale Cyclobarbital. Ciclobarbitale calcico Cyclobarbital calcium.

Ciclomir Cyclobarbital. Ciclon Colloquial term for PCP. Ciclon de crystal Colloquial term for PCP. Ciclostal Meprobamate. Ciclotran Medazepam. Cicopales Mexican colloquial term for depressant.

CICP Centre for International Crime Prevention.

Cid Colloquial term for LSD, short for acid. Cider Pressed from fruits, especially apples, used as a beverage or to make other products, such as vinegar. Used as a beverage or for making other products (such as applejack, vinegar, or apple butter). In most European countries the name is restricted to fermented juice. In North America, the freshly expressed juice that has not been subjected to any permanent preservative treatment is generally called sweet cider, whereas juice that has been permitted to undergo some natural fermentation is designated hard cider. The expressed juice of apples that has been treated by some method to prevent spoilage while in hermetically sealed cans or bottles is marketed as apple juice in most countries. Apple juice or cider is relatively low in content of protein, fat, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and vitamin A and contains a moderate amount of carbohydrates. However, about 75 percent of the carbohydrates consists of sugars that are readily assimilated by humans. Ascorbic acid, too, is easily added.

In the making of cider, the apples are ground into a fine pulp or pomace and then pressed. For hard cider, the extracted juice is conveyed directly into fermenting vats or casks. If the fermented cider is to be sweet, the juice must be filtered at an early stage to make possible the retention of the desired percentage of un-fermented sugar. If a dry cider is desired, fermentation must proceed until all or most of the sugar is converted into alcohol. Natural fermentation resulting from the wild yeasts present on the apples is the usual practice, but some makers pasteurize the fresh juice and then add pure cultures of selected yeasts. After about three months the juice is subjected to filtration to remove sedimentation and the look of turbidity. Flavour is improved by aging hard cider for a few months, or even two or three years, after filtration. Some hard cider is carbonated. France has the largest production of cider. Cider manufactured in France must be produced by the fermentation of the juice of fresh apples or a mixture of apples and pears and must conform to specific standards for the different kinds, designated by different names. English and American cider has been extremely variable because of a lack of legal standards, except for those regulations relating to contamination.

Middle English sidre, from Old French, from Late Latin sicera, intoxicating drink, from Greek sikera, from Hebrew sekar. Cidin Metamfetamine hydrochloride. Cielo ayahuasca Banisteriopsis caapi. Cifte bela Turkish colloquial term for for barbiturates.

Cigar Cylindrical roll of tobacco for smoking, consisting of cut tobacco filler formed in a binder leaf and with a wrapper leaf rolled spirally around the bunch. Wrapper leaf, the most expensive leaf used in cigars, must be strong, elastic, silky in texture, and even in colour; it must have a pleasant flavour and good burning properties. Columbus and the explorers who followed him in Cuba, Mexico, Central America, and Brazil found that the Indians of those regions smoked a long, thick bundle of twisted tobacco leaves wrapped in a dried palm leaf or corn (maize) husk. A pottery vessel discovered at Uaxactun, Guatemala, dating from the 10th century AD or earlier, shows the figure of a Maya smoking a string-tied roll of tobacco leaves. The Spanish word cigarro, from which "cigar" is derived, probably was an adaptation of sik'ar, the Mayan term for smoking. By 1600 the cigar had been introduced into Spain, where it was a symbol of conspicuous wealth for two centuries before it was widely used in other European countries. Modern cigars are described by their size and shape as follows: corona is a straight-shaped cigar with rounded top (the end placed in the mouth), about 5 % inches (14 centimetres) long; petit corona, or corona chica, is about 5 in. long; tres petit corona is about 4 % in. long; half a corona is about 3 % in. long; Lonsdale is the same shape as a corona, about 6 % in. long; ideales is a slender, torpedo-shaped cigar, tapered at the lighting end, about 6 % in. long; bouquet is a smaller, torpedo-shaped cigar; Londres is a straight cigar about 4 % in. long. These descriptive terms appear after the brand name. A panatela is a thin cigar open at both ends, usually about 5 in. long with a straight shape but sometimes having a shoulder, or drawn-in portion, at the mouth end; originally it had a finished top that had to be cut off before smoking. A cheroot is a thin cigar, open at both ends, usually thicker and stubbier than a panatela, and sometimes slightly tapered. The name whiff, used in Britain, refers to a small cigar open at both ends, about 3 V in. long.

The main colour classifications of cigars are claro (CCC), light; colorado-claro (CC), medium; colorado (C), dark; colorado-maduro (CM), very dark; and maduro (M), exceptionally dark. The last two are seldom seen in the United Kingdom or the United States. The colour of the wrapper is no indication of the strength of a cigar, but considerable care is given to the matching of colours. Good-quality cigars may be sorted into as many as 20 different shades to ensure that all cigars in a box have a uniform appearance. Cigars should be kept in a fairly dry and warm, not hot, atmosphere at constant conditions.

In modern packaging, a band is placed on the cigar or printed on the protective covering, usually cellophane. The covering, applied by machine, preserves the natural humidostatic condition of the cigar. Selectors and packers, working under suitable lighting, arrange the cigars according to colour and perfection of wrapper and place them in boxes made of wood, metal, paper, or glass. Cigar smoker A person who smokes cigars. Cigarette 1. A small roll of finely cut tobacco for smoking, enclosed in a wrapper of thin paper. 2. A similar roll of another substance, such as a tobacco substitute or marijuana.

The Aztecs smoked a hollow reed or cane tube stuffed with tobacco. Other natives of Mexico, Central America, and parts of South America crushed tobacco leaves and rolled the shreds in corn (maize) husk or other vegetable wrappers. But it was the cigar rather than this prototype of the cigarette that the conquistadors brought back to Spain as a luxury for the wealthy.

Early in the 16th century beggars in Seville began to pick up discarded cigar butts, shred them, and roll them in scraps of paper (Spanish papeletes) for smoking, thus improvising the first cigarettes. These poor man's smokes were known as cigarrillos (Spanish: "little cigars"). Late in the 18th century they acquired respectability and their use spread to Italy and Portugal; they were carried by Portuguese traders to the Levant and Russia. French and British troops in the Napoleonic Wars became familiar with them; the French named them cigarettes. Forty years later another generation of French and British troops, fighting in the Crimean War, made the acquaintance of Turkish cigarettes. At the same time, cigarettes were becoming popular in the U.S. British taste later switched to cigarettes filled with unmixed Virginia tobacco, but the U.S. market developed a preference for a blend including some Turkish tobacco. At first, all cigarettes were made by hand either by the smoker or in factories. The factory process consisted of hand rolling on a table, pasting, and hand packaging. In 1880, James A. Bonsack was granted a U.S. patent for a cigarette machine in which tobacco was fed onto a continuous strip of paper and was automatically formed, pasted, closed, and cut to lengths by a rotary cutting knife. The Bonsack machine was imported to England in 1883. In the next few years the cigarette industry developed in several European countries.

Improvements in cultivation and processing that lowered the acid content of cigarette tobacco and made it easier to inhale contributed to a major expansion in cigarette smoking during the first half of the 20th century. During World War I the prejudice against smoking by women was broken, and the practice became widespread among women in Europe and the United States in the 1920s. In the 1950s and '60s research produced medical evidence that linked cigarette smoking with health hazards, especially with lung cancer, emphysema, and heart disease. In some nations, notably the United Kingdom and the United States, measures were taken to discourage the use of cigarettes. In the 1980s and '90s, despite growing awareness of the health risks involved, smoking continued to increase, with greater consumption in Third World countries offsetting the effects of antismoking sentiment elsewhere.

French, diminutive of cigare, cigar, from Spanish cigarro.

Cigarette paper Colloquial term for packet of heroin.

Cigarette smoker A person who smokes cigarettes.

Cigarette smoking The breathing in of the gases generated by slowly burning tobacco in cigarettes. The practice stems from the effect on the nervous system of the nicotine contained in the smoke. In addition to Nicotine, nearly 1000 other chemicals have been identified in cigarette smoke, many of which have been shown to cause cancer. Cigarette smoke is considered more dangerous than pipe or cigar smoke because it is less irritating and more likely to be breathed in deeply. See also: Tobacco, Nicotine. Cigarill A small cigar. Cigarr Cigar.

Cigarro Colloquial term for cigarette (marijuana or tobacco).

Cigarro de marihuana Marijuana cigarette.

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