Caapi Pinima

Compound from the lians, Tetrapteris methus-tica and Tetrapteris murcroata , with hallucinogen properties. The substance is made and used the same way as ayahuasca. Caapi' Banisteriopsis caapi. Caaru Psidium guajava. Caballo 1. Colloquial term for heroin. 2. Colloquial term for carrier of drugs. Spanish horse.

Cabello Colloquial term for cocaine. Cabona Colloquial term for inhalants. Cabronal 1. Phenobarbital calcium. 2. Phenobarbital. Cabuim Anadenanthera colbrina. Caca Colloquial term for heroin. Cacahoatl Cacao. Cacahua Cacao. Cacahuatl Cacao. Cacalia cordiflora See: Matwu. Cacao 1. An evergreen tropical American tree (Theobroma cacao) having leathery, ellipsoid, ten-ribbed fruits borne on the trunks and older branches. Also called chocolate tree. 2. The seed of this plant, used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. In this sense, also called cacao bean, cocoa bean. The usefulness of the cocoa bean was well known to the Pre-Columbian inhabitants of tropical Meso-America-particularly the Mayas and Aztecs, who used the bean not only to produce a beverage but also as a medium of exchange. During the 16th century cocoa beans were carried to Europe, where refinements in processing led to the development of cocoa and chocolate and to the extraction of cocoa butter (q.v.), a natural vegetable fat.

The cacao tree is grown throughout the wet lowland tropics, often in the shade of taller trees. Its thick trunk rises up to 12 metres (40 feet) and supports a canopy of leathery oblong leaves up to 30 centimetres (1 foot) long. The small, foul-smelling, pinkish flowers are borne directly on the branches and trunk. The flowers are followed by the fruit, or pods, which are ovoid, yellow-brown to purple, and divided on the surface by 10 ribs, or ridges. The pods may be up to 35 cm long and 12 cm in diameter. Each pod yields 20-40 seeds, or cocoa beans. The beans, about 2.5 cm long, are embedded within the pod in a pink mucilaginous pulp. After the fourth year a tree may bear 60 to 70 fruits annually. After harvesting, the pod is split open and the seeds, or beans, are removed and allowed to ferment for several days. They are then subject to a series of processes-including drying, cleaning, roasting, and grinding-that yields a paste called chocolate liquor. This liquor is then either pressed, to produce cocoa butter and cocoa powder, or combined with additional cocoa butter (and sometimes other ingredients), to yield one of many chocolate products.

Spanish, from Nahuatl cacahuatl. Cacao butter See: Cocoa butter. Cacao guianensis Synonym for Theo-broma cacao, See: Cacao.

Cacao minus Synonym for Theobroma cacao,

See: Cacao.

Cacao sabanero Brugmansia candida. Cacao sativa Synonym for Theobroma cacao.

See: Cacao.

Cacao tree See: Cacao. Cacaocuahuitl Cacao. Cacaotero Cacao. Cacau Cacao. Cacauaxochitl Cacao. Cacautzaua Cacao. Cacayoer Cacao.

Cache 1. Colloquial term for large supply of drugs. 2. Colloquial term for hiding place for drugs.

Cachet A kind of wafer capsule formerly used by pharmacists for presenting an unpleasant-tasting drug. French, from Old French, from cacher, to press. Cachimba de Don Juan Colloquial term for a pipe for marijuana smoking. Cachito Colombian colloquial term for a marijuana cigarette. Cachoaquiahuit Cacao. Cachuca 1. Colloquial term for a capsule. 2. Peruvian and Ecuadoran colloquial term for penitentary, reformatory or prison. Cacil 1. Colloquial term for cocaine. 2. Colloquial term for morphine. Caco Cacao.

Cacti Joint Colloquial term for a joint of dried and ground up peyote. Cactus Colloquial term for mescaline. Cactus buttons Colloquial term for mescaline.

Cactus head 1. Colloquial term for mescaline. 2. Colloquial term for a user of mescal buttons or mescaline. Cad Colloquial term for 1 ounce (28 g.). Cadet Colloquial term for a new addict. Cadexyl Meprobamate.

Cadillac Colloquial term for PCP. Cadillac express Colloquial term for meth-cathinone.

Cadiprol Meprobamate. Caduceus group Colloquial term for reov-ery group among physicians, often an AA group or NA group.

Cafe Mexican colloquial term for marijuana. Cafe noir Colloquial term for top quality drug.

Cafergot Butalbital.

Cafergot PB 1. Butalbital and Pentobarbi-tal or Pentobarbital sodium. Cafergot compositum Butalbital. Cafergot compositum forte Butalbital. Caffeine A xanthine which is a mild central nervous system stimulant vasodilator and diuretic. Caffeine is found in coffee, chocolate, cola and some other soft drinks, and tea in some cases with other xanthines such as theo-phylline or theobromine. Acute or chronic overuse (e.g. a daily intake of 500 mg or more), with resultant toxicity is termed caf-feinism. Symptoms include restlessness, insomnia flushed face, muscle twitching, tachycardia, gastrointestinal disturbances including, abdominal pain, pressured or rambling thought and speech, and sometimes exacerbation of preexisting anxiety of panic states, depression, or schizophrenia. The substance use disorders in ICD-10 include caffeine use disorder and caffeine dependence (classified in F15). Caffeine is the world's most popular drug. The white, bitter-tasting, crystalline substance was first isolated from coffee in 1820. Both words, caffeine and coffee, are derived from the Arabic word qahweh (pronounced "kahveh" in Turkish). The origins of the words reflect the spread of the beverage into Europe via Arabia and Turkey from north-east Africa, where coffee trees were cultivated in the 6th century. Coffee began to be popular in Europe in the 17th century. By the 18th century plantations had been established in Indonesia and the West Indies.

The caffeine content of coffee beans varies according to the species of the coffee plant. Beans from Coffea arabica, grown mostly in Central and South America, contain about 1.1% caffeine. beans from Coffea robusta, grown mostly in Indonesia and Africa, contain about 2.2% caffeine. Caffeine also occurs in cacao pods and hence in cocoa and chocolate products; in kola nuts, used in the preparation of cola drinks; and in the ilex plant, from whose leaves the popular South American beverage yerba mate is prepared. Caffeine is also found in tea. It was first isolated from tea leaves in 1827 and named "theine" because it was believed to be a dis tinctly different compound from the caffeine in coffee. Tea leaves contain about 3. 5% caffeine, but a cup of tea usually contains less caffeine than a cup of coffee because much less tea than coffee is used during preparation. The caffeine content of a cup of coffee averages about 50-100 mg, but varies widely according to cup size, the method of preparation, and the amount of coffee used. Generally, cups prepared from instant coffee contain less caffeine (average 65 mg) and cups prepared by drip methods contain more caffeine (average 110 mg). Cups of tea average about 30 mg, but the range is also large - from 10 to 90 mg.

Cola drinks contain about 35 mg caffeine per standard 280 ml serving, with some 5% of the caffeine being a component of kola nuts and most of the remainder being added in the form of a by-product of the decaffeination of coffee and tea. Caffeine-containing soft drinks account for more than 65% of soft drink consumption. A cup of hot chocolate contains about 4 mg caffeine, and a 50-gram chocolate bar between 5 and 60 mg, increasing with the quality of the chocolate. Caffeine is an ingredient of certain headache pills (30-65 mg). It is the main ingredient of non-prescription "stay-awake" pills (100-200 mg). Caffeine taken in beverage form begins to reach all tissues of the body within five minutes. Peak blood levels are reached in about 30 minutes. Half of a given dose of caffeine is metabolized in about four hours ^ more rapidly in smokers and less rapidly in newborn infants, in women in late pregnancy, and in sufferers from liver disease. Normally, almost all ingested caffeine is metabolized. Less than 3% appears unchanged in urine, and there is no day-to-day accumulation of the drug in the body.

Caffeine use may increase blood pressure. Caffeine stimulates the brain and behavior. Use of 75-150 mg of caffeine elevates neural activity in many parts of the brain, postpones fatigue, and enhances performance at simple intellectual tasks and at physical work that involves endurance but not fine motor coordination. (Caffeine-caused tremor can reduce hand steadiness.)

Caffeine's effects on complex intellectual tasks and on mood do not lend themselves to a simple summary. The effects depend on the personality of the user, on the immediate environment, on the user's knowing whether caffeine has been taken, and even on the time of day.

The effects of caffeine on sleep are clear-cut: taken before bedtime, it usually delays sleep onset, shortens overall sleep time, and reduces the "depth" of sleep. After using caffeine, sleepers are more easily aroused, move more during sleep, and report a reduction in the quality of sleep. The effects of caffeine on dreaming are less clear.

Larger doses of caffeine, especially when given to non-users, can produce headache, jit-teriness, abnormally rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), convulsions, and even delirium. Near-fatal doses cause a crisis resembling the state of a diabetic without insulin, including high levels of blood sugar and the appearance of acetone-like substances in urine. The lowest known dose fatal to an adult has been 3,200 mg - administered intravenously by accident. The fatal oral dose is in excess of 5,000 mg - the equivalent of 40 strong cups of coffee taken in a very short space of time. Tolerance refers to the body's "getting used" to a drug with its repeated taking. It is difficult to study the tolerance of human subjects to the various effects of caffeine because nearly everyone in our society uses caffeine regularly in one form or another. Careful research has suggested that tolerance develops to most of caffeine's effects - meaning that, with experience of the drug, the same dose produces a reduced effect, or a larger dose is required to produce the same level of effect. Regular use of upwards of 350 mg of caffeine a day causes physical dependence on the drug. This means that interruption of the regular use produces a characteristic withdrawal syndrome, the most conspicuous feature of which is an often severe headache that can be relieved by taking caffeine. Absence of caffeine also makes regular users feel irritable and tired. Relief from these withdrawal effects is often given as a reason for using caffeine. Long-term effects of a toxic nature do not appear evident when regular caffeine use is below about 650 mg a day - equivalent to .about eight or nine average cups of coffee. Above this level, users may suffer from chronic insomnia, persistent anxiety and depression, and stomach ulcers. Caffeine use appears to be associated with irregular heartbeat and may raise cholesterol levels, but there is no firm evidence that caffeine causes heart disease. The evidence is also unclear concerning caffeine and cancer. Caffeine and some of its metabolites can cause changes in the cells of the body and in the way in which they reproduce themselves, and caffeine certainly enhances this kind of action by some known carcinogens. However, although caffeine is suspected as a cause of cancer, the evidence is contradictory and does not allow a clear conclusion. Some animal studies suggest that caffeine can have anti-cancer properties. For example, in rats it prevents breast cancer caused by dieth-ylstilbestrol (the "morning after" pill). Caffeine certainly has the ability to cause a variety of reproductive effects in animals, including congenital abnormalities and reproductive failures, reduced fertility, prematurity, and low birth weight. What is unknown is whether these findings are relevant to the use of ordinary amounts of caffeine-containing beverages by pregnant women. Pregnant women have been advised to restrict caffeine intake by both Canadian and United States governments. Pregnant smokers should be especially wary.

The most common medicinal use of caffeine is as a part of headache preparations and other pain relievers. Caffeine is added both for its specific ability to relieve headache, including that caused by caffeine withdrawal, and for its ability to help analgesics do their work better. The ability of caffeine to stimulate breathing is used in the treatment of apnea (cessation of breathing) in newborn babies, and as an antidote against the depression of breathing by overdoses of heroin and other opiate drugs. More controversial therapeutic uses of caffeine are these: to kill skin funguses; to improve sperm mobility; to enhance the toxic effects of chemicals used in cancer therapy; and to facilitate the production of seizures during electroconvulsive therapy. Annual world consumption of caffeine is about 120,000 tonnes - equivalent to 70 mg of the drug a day for each inhabitant. Of this total consumption, 54% is in the form of or derived from coffee; 43% is in the form of or derived from tea. Some three-quarters of the coffee that is cultivated is of the arabica species, but the robusta species accounts for rather more than a quarter of all caffeine derived from coffee because it contains twice as much caffeine. In the United States, daily per capita consumption of caffeine is about 210 mg. About 60% of United States consumption is in the form of coffee, with tea and soft drinks each accounting for about 16% of the total. Caffeine consumption is very much higher in some European countries. In Britain, daily per capita use of caffeine is about 445 mg, about 72% of which is in the form of tea and 19%, in the form of coffee. In Sweden, daily per capita consumption is near 425 mg, 85% in the form of coffee and 6% in the form of tea. Caffeinism Acute or chronic overuse of caffeine (e.g. a daily intake of 500 mg or more), with resultant toxicity is termed caffeinism. Symptoms include restlessness, insomnia flushed face, muscle twitching, tachycardia, gastrointestinal disturbances including, abdominal pain, pressured or rambling thought and speech, and sometimes exacerbation of pre-existing anxiety of panic states, depression, or schizophrenia. The substance use disorders in ICD-10 include caffeine use disorder and caffeine dependence (classified in F15). Cafilon Phenmetrazine theoclate (8-chlorotheophylli-nate). Cafinitrina Phenobarbital. Cágau Cacao.

CAGE Diagnostic test for screening alcohol problems. Acronym for the letters in the keywords of the questions: Cut back, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye-opener. The four questions are: Have you ever:

1. Attempted to cut back on alcohol? 2. Been annoyed by comments made about your drinking? 3. Felt guilty about drinking? 4. Had an eye-opener first thing in the morning to steady your nerves?

Two of four positive answers identifying a "problem drinker".

A modified version (T-ACE) replaces the question of ever feeling guilty with a question addressing alcohol tolerance. Although a simple questionnaire can not substitute for a complete history or thorough evaluation this simple and easy to manage questionnaire has proved to be a good instrument to detect alcohol problems and is recommended to use in general health examinations. The problem drinkers can than be subject for a more detailed structured interviews and early intervention. Cahoba Anadenanthera peregrina. Cahua Psychotria viridis. Caine 1. Colloquial term for cocaine.

2. Colloquial term for crack. Cajecua Cacao.

Cajoba Anadenanthera peregrina. Cakes Colloquial term for round discs of crack.

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