term for being addicted.
Anabolic Anabolism, the constructive process by which living cells convert simple substances into living tissue. Anabolic steroid Any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote muscle and bone growth. Used therapeutically to treat chronic debilitating diseases, anabolic steroids have also been used by bodybuilders and athletes seeking increased muscle mass and enhanced strength and stamina. Such use is banned by the International Olympic Committee and other governing bodies in sports, and in 1988 a federal law made it illegal to distribute anabolic steroids for nontherapeutic uses. Abuse of anabolic steroids may lead to increased aggressiveness, irritability, and other disruptive behavioral effects, including symptoms characteristic of drug addiction; long term effects are not known. See: Steroids. Anabolic-androgenic steroids See: Steroids.
Anada Colloquial term for marijuana. Anadenanthera colbrina South American tree. The seeds are the source of hallucinogen snuffs but also smoked with tobacco or boiled and mixed with honey, often used in religious rites.
Anadenanthera peregrina South American up to 20 meters high tree. The seeds are the source of the hallucinogen snuff cohoba, also called yopo.
Anadol Alphaprodine hydrochloride. Anadrax Levomethamfetamine. Anadrol Oxymetholone, an orally taken anabolic, androgenic steroid - all steroids cause testicular change.
Anaerobic Living organisms not requiring oxygen for the release of energy food molecules such as glucose. Facultative anaerobes like fermenting yeasts can function with or without oxygen. Anaerobic respiration of yeasts results in the production of alcohol. Anaesthesia 1. Loss of sensation, usually by damage to a nerve or receptor, called also numbness. 2. Loss of the ability to feel pain, caused by administration of a drug or by other medical interventions.a. veno'sus, the angle at the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein.
An neg. + Greek aisthesis sensation. Anaesthesia, loss of sensation, especially the sensation of touch. It can be general (affecting the entire body and usually accompanied by loss of consciousness) or local (affecting limited areas of the body). The condition may be the result of damage to nerves or nerve centers by disease or injury, or it may be intentionally induced by the administration of drugs for the prevention or relief of pain. History of Anaesthetics
Of the few anaesthetic agents known to the ancients, opium and hemp (see CANNABIS) were the most important. Both were taken by ingestion or by burning the drug and inhaling the smoke. Nitrous oxide, discovered by the British chemist Sir Humphry Davy about 1800, was first used as an anaesthetic in 1844 by the American dentist Horace Wells. In 1842 the American surgeon Crawford Long successfully used ethyl ether as a general anaesthetic during surgery. He failed to publish his findings, however, and credit for the discovery of the anaesthetic properties of ether was given to the American dentist William Morton, who in 1846 publicly demonstrated its use during a tooth extraction. In 1847 the British physician Sir James Simpson discovered the anaesthetic properties of chloroform. Many other general anaesthetics have since been discovered. Ether and chloroform have been largely abandoned because of their dangerous side effects and flammability. Some anaesthetics act by depressing the central nervous system (barbiturates, halothane), whereas others induce amnesia and dissociation (nitrous oxide, enflurane). General Anaesthesia
Surgical anaesthesia (complete general anaesthesia, characterised by muscular paralysis sufficient to permit surgical manipulation) is produced by inhalation anaesthetics: gases or volatile liquids such as cyclopropane, nitrous oxide, halothane, and enflurane. The anaesthetic, usually mixed with oxygen, is either inhaled or administered into the windpipe through a tube.
Modern anaesthesia almost always involves a combination of agents. Before administering the inhalation anaesthetic, the anaesthetist may give intravenously a short-acting barbiturate such as pentobarbital or sodium pentothal (more properly called thiopental sodium or thiopentone), or an antianxiety drug such as diazepam, to induce unconsciousness. A narcotic analgesic such as meperidine or fentanyl may be used in addition. To allow use of smaller amounts of the inhalation anaesthetic, special muscle-paralyzing drugs are given. These include tubocurarine, gallamine, and succinylcholine. The combination of a narcotic, a barbiturate, a muscle-paralyzing drug, and nitrous oxide is called balanced anaesthesia. Because muscular activity is prevented in all these procedures, the anaesthetist must induce breathing in the patient mechanically. Surgical anaesthesia must continue throughout the operation, but prolonged anaesthetisation can kill, paralysing first the respiratory system and then the heart. The correct level is maintained by constant monitoring of the patient's condition and increasing or decreasing the dosage as needed.
Thiopental sodium in small doses is sometimes used in psychiatry because it allows patients to talk uninhibitedly. This quality has also given the drug some value in law enforcement as a Otruth serum.O See also sco-polamine. Local Anaesthesia
Some surgical procedures do not require total muscular relaxation and can be performed using local anaesthetics, which temporarily block nerve conduction without damaging nerve fibers. Local anaesthesia is produced by injecting into the tissues to be affected a solution of a natural alkaloid such as cocaine, the oldest of all local anaesthetics, or a synthetic agent such as procaine, widely known under the trade name Novocain, or lidocaine (Xylo-caine).
Block anaesthesia, a much more extensive local anaesthesia, is produced by injecting the agent into a nerve trunk, next to a nerve, or all around the operative field, thereby deadening the entire area. The best-known block anaesthesia is probably the spinal block, produced by injecting an anaesthetic into the spinal canal.
A mild local anaesthesia, useful in many minor dental and medical procedures, can be produced by numbing the tissues with cold, ei ther by applying ice or by spraying with a volatile liquid such as ethyl chloride. Anaesthetic Anesthetic. Anaflon Acetaminophen. Anafebryl Pholcodine. Anagord Methylphenidate hydrochloride. Anagrax Clorazepate dipotassium. Anaids Phenobarbital. Anal administration Administration of a drug in the anus. Analbarb Phenobarbital. Analbombe German colloquial term for drugs in a condom hidden in the rectum. Analeptic A drug which acts as a restorative, such as caffeine, amfetamine, pentylene-tetazol, etc. Often used as a synonyme to stimulant.
Gr. analepsis a repairing. Analgesia 1. Absence of sensibility to pain; absence of pain on noxious stimulation. 2. The relief of pain without loss of consciousness. An neg. + Greek algesis pain. Analgesic 1. Relieving pain. 2. Not sensitive to pain. 3. An agent that alleviates pain without causing loss of consciousness. Narcotic analgesic, opioid analgesic.opoid a., any of a class of compounds that bind with a number of closely related specific receptors (opioid receptors) in the central nervous system to block the perception of pain or affect the emotional response to pain; such compounds include opium and its derivatives as well as a number of synthetic compounds, and are used for moderate to severe pain. Chronic administration or abuse nay lead to dependence.
Analgesic, class of drugs which relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness. The drugs range from the narcotic opium derivatives morphine and codeine (see opium) to a wide range of nonnarcotics such as aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), and ibuprofen (Advil), the last entering the nonprescription category in the United States in 1984. External analgesics include such drugs as hydrocortisone. Anaesthetics in low doses, or local anaesthetics such as benzocaine, are also analgesic in function (see Anaesthesia). Narcotics affect the central nervous system, are dependence producing and are used only for severe pain; synthetic opiates such as pro-poxyphene (Darvon), pentazocine (Talwin), and butorphanol (Stadol) are also dependence producing. The nonnarcotics act by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. Aspirin is a good anti-inflammatory but can irritate the stomach, whereas acetaminophen is less effective against inflammation. Ibuprofen is also an anti-inflammatory, but it can irritate the stomach, as well as aggravate high blood pressure and damage the kidneys. With the discovery of natural opiate receptors in the brain, and of hormones such as endorphins and enkephalins that link to them, research has been devoted to ways in which these systems could be made to ease pain. Analgesic abuse See: Abuse of non-dependence-producing substances. Analgetic See: Analgesic. Analgetico Allobarbital. Analgeticum compretten Barbital. Analgia Absence of sensibility to pain. Analgic Not sensitive to pain. Analgilasa Amobarbital. Analog Compund similar to another compound in effect but differing somewhat in structure and origin. Analsed Phenobarbital. Analsul Allobarbital. Analval Phenobarbital. Anamnesis 1. In psychology: A recalling to memory; recollection. 2. In medicine: The complete case history of a patient. Greek anamnesis anamnesis, from anamim-neskein, to remind : ana-, ana- + mimneskein, to recall.
Anandamide Endogenous cannabis-like substance naturally present in the human brain. In 1988, Allyn Howlett of St Louis University Medical School in USA discovered a specific protein receptor for THC in mouse nerve cells - a protein that only THC and its relatives dock onto. Two years later, Tom Bonner's group at the National Institute of Mental Health in USA pinpointed the DNA that encodes the same receptor in rats. Several laboratories set to work on the problem and, 1992 Mechoulam's group in Jerusalem was the first to come up with an answer, in the form of a greasy, hairpin-shaped chemical. The researchers dubbed it anandamide, from "an-anda", the Sanskrit word for bliss. Finding a cannabinoid receptor and anan-damide implies that THC - unlike alcohol -has a quite precise modusoperandi that taps into a specific brain function. Presumably the drug binds to nerves that have the receptor, and the nerves respond in turn by altering their behaviour. The classic effects of marijuana smoking are the consequences: changes in mood, memory, appetite, movement and perception, including pain. Researchers think THC affects so many mental processes because receptors are found in many brain regions, especially in those that perform tasks known to be disturbed during THC intoxication: in the banana-shaped hippocampus, crucial for proper memory; in the crumpledcere-bral cortex, home of higher thinking; and in the primitive basal ganglion, controller of movement.
Anandanthera peregrina South American tree up to 20 m tall. From the seeds of the pea pods the hallucinogen snuff cohoba, also called yopo, is made.
Anapetol Phenmetrazine hydrochloride. Anaphen Butalbital.
Anaphrodisia Absence or weakening of sexual desire.
Anaphylactic shock See: Anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis 1. Systematic and generalized anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock. a manifestation of immediate hypersensivity in which exposure of a sensitized individual to a specific antigen or hapten results in urticaria, pruritis and angiodema followed by a vascular collapse and shock and often accompanied by life-threatening respiratory distress. Can be caused of Hymenoptera venom, pollen, food, horse and rabbit sera. heterologous enzymes and hormones and certain drugs such as penicillin and lidocaine. 2. General term originally applied to the situation in which exposure to a toxin resulted not in development extended to include all cases of systemic ana-phylaxis in response to foreign antigens and also to include a variety of experimental models e g passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Greek ana, phylaxis, protection. Anasha Russian word for hashish. Anasleep Pentobarbital sodium. Anasma Meprobamate and Phenobarbital. Anaspaz pB Phenobarbital. Anassa Cannabis.
Anasterone Anabolic steroid Oximetolon. Anastress Meprobamate. Anatanemine Phenobarbital. Anathal Pentobarbital sodium. Anathylmon Meprobamate. Anathymon Meprobamate. Anatrofin Colloquial term for injectable steroid.
Anavar Oxandrolone, an orally taken anabolic, androgenic steroid - all steroids cause testicular change.
Anazine Phenmetrazine hydrochloride. Ancatropine Methylphenobarbital or Phenobarbital sodium or Secbutabarbital. Anchor Colloquial term for LSD on paper. Anchored i Sot's Bay Colloquial term for being drunk.
Anda down Mexican colloquial term for going down or coming down from a drug euphoria.
Andaksin Meprobamate. Andaqui Brugmansia candida. Andar botando Mexican colloquial term for being high, spaced out, stoned.
Andar chueco Mexican colloquial term for dealing in illegal drug transactions. Andar derecho Mexican colloquial term for being clean.
Andar enfermo Mexican colloquial term for being sick and in need of drugs. Andar hypo Mexican colloquial term for being high, loaded, spaced out, stoned. Andar limplo Mexican colloquial term for being clean, to be straight. Andar loco Mexican colloquial term for ("to be crazy") from drugs, high, loaded, spaced out.
Andar pasado Mexican colloquial term for ("to be high,") loaded, spaced out, stoned. Andar prendido Mexican colloquial term for ("to be high,") loaded, spaced out, stoned. Andar servido Mexican colloquial term for ("to be high,") loaded, spaced out, stoned. Andar volando Mexican colloquial term for ("to trip out") on a drug. Andaskin Meprobamate. Andaxin Meprobamate. Andenschnee German colloquial term for cocain.
Andersson, Paul (1930-1976), Swedish poet and one of the leaders of the Metamor-phous-group. The literary group whose members injected themselves with amfetamines. This practice is regarded as one of the and main factors in spreading the habit of injecting Amfetamines into epidemic proportions during the 1960s. Anderssons most well known work is Elegie over a lost summer. He is also a major figure in Birgitta Stenbergs autobiographical novel The Orange-man. Andrex Phenmetrazine hydrochloride. Andriosedil Phenobarbital. Androatane C19N32 , the hydrocarbon nucleus from which all androgens are made -found in names of street steroid preparations. Androgen Any substance that promotes masculinization. E.g. a steroid hormone, such as testosterone or androsterone, which controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. Androgenic Derivative of male hormone, testosterone, and which stimulates male characteristics, growth of sex organs, facial hair, deepening of voice, sperm production, but can also eliminate the hormonal controls of testosterone and shut off the male or female reproductive hormone system and reverse these effects.
Androgenic steroid See Steroids. Andrücken German colloquial term for: 1. The first injection of illegal drugs. 2. To make a person an addict. 3. To introduce someone to illegal drugs. 4. To talk someone into injecting drugs.
Anejo Blend of rums aged for a minimum of six years.
Anemia Condition resulting from a reduction in hemoglobin content or in the number of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Although the causes of anemia vary, because of the blood's reduced capacity to carry oxygen all types exhibit similar symptoms: weakness, dizziness, fatigue, and, in severe cases, breathing difficulties and heart abnormalities. Therapy includes identifying and treating the underlying cause.
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