1. The frequent drinking of substantial amounts of alcoholic beverages, so as to maintain a high blood alcohol level. Also, the process of increasing the frequency of alcohol consumption. The term can be applied either to the individual drinker or to a society as a whole.
"Alcoolisation" was originally used in the context of French drinking patterns and implies that the drinking is normative in the sociocul-tural conditions, rather than reflecting individual psychopathology. Synonym: Inveterate drinking. See also: Jellinek's typology (delta alcoholism). 2. Treatment by application or injection of alcohol. 3. Producing alcohol. Alcoholize 1. To treat with alcohol.
2. To transform into alcohol. Alcoholized Colloquial term for being drunk.
Alcoholo- An etymologically malformation as alcohol is not derived from Greek or Latin. The form is although preferred in some words as alocohologenic.
Alcohologenic toxin Name of an hypothetical toxic substanve produced in the body in alcoholism. The term was coined 1901 by Wagner von Jauregg.
Alcohologist A person who studies alcohol and its effects.
Alcohology The study and science of phenomena relating to alcohol The term was coined by R. Koppe in 1903. At present, not in general use in the English language. Alcoholomania 1. Morbid craving for alcohol, delirium tremens. 2. Alcoholism, in French alcoolomanie and German Alkoholi-manie and Italian Alcoolomania. Alcoholometer An instrument, such as a hydrometer, used to determine the amount of alcohol in a solution.
Alcoholometry Measurement of alcohol content in a liquid.
Alcoholophilia Synonyme for alcoholomania.
Alcoholophobia Fear of alcohol. Alcoholsensibilising substances Alcohol reaction causing substance. Alcoholuria The presence of alcohol in the urine.
Alcoholysis A process analogous to hydrolysis, but in which alcohol takes the place of water.
Alcoid Dextromoramide. Alcolock Electronic car lock where a negative exhale sample must be given before a car can be started or where exhale samples un-regulary must be made to avoid that the car stops. It has been suggeted that this technique could be used for persons who have committed drunk driving offences. Alcologia: European Journal of Alcohol
Studies Published in Italy in English and containing original research. Alcometer Trademark for one of the most common types of alkometers. The person subject to the test blows in a disposal cone attached to the instrument. The alcohol content of the air is measured and can immediately be red in a scale translated to the promille content of alcohol in the blood. Unconscious persons can be tested through the nose. The alcohome-ter is commonly used by police to find out whether a driver has to much alcohol in the body but the instrument is also used in emergency rooms and to control sobriety in treatment institutions.
Alconline Nordic literature-database specialised on alcohol and drug abuse Contains summaries and references Available through MEDLINE. Produced by Centralforbundet for alkohol och narkotikaupplysning, CAN in Sweden in cooperation with Rusmiddelsdirek-toratet in Norway.
Alcoolisation See: Alcoholization. Alcoolista Italian word for an alcoholic. Alcoolomania Italian term for alcohol addiction and alcoholism.
Alcoolomanie French term for alcohol addiction and alcoholism. Alcools Title See: Apollinaire. Alcopan Opium, mixed alkaloids of. Alcoponum Opium, mixed alkaloids of. Alcosol A sol in which the dispersion medium is alcohol.
Alcott, Louisa May 1832-1888. American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women (18681869). Described the effects of marijuana in her short story Perlous play. Aldcrofts, Richard American artist, a pioneer of psychedelic art in the 1960s. He constructed the Infinity Machine that created psychedelic images through a random process. A projector and a rotating cylinder containing design elements floating in liquid. The changing patterns of the swirling elements where projected onto a screen. Aldehyde Any of a class of highly reactive organic chemical compounds obtained by oxidation of primary alcohols, characterized by the common group CHO, and used in the manufacture of resins, dyes, and organic acids. See also Acetaldehyde. Aldehyde dehydrogenase Enzyme which breaks down acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Aldrich, Thomas Bailey 1836-1907, American author; b. Portsmouth, N.H. He is most widely known for his autobiographical The Story of a Bad Boy (1870). A skillful writer of light verse, he also served (1881-90) as editor of the Atlantic Monthly. In his poem Hascheesh he describes the initially pleasurable effects of marijuana which after a while turns into monstrous nightmares. Ale 1. Old English ealu, alu. A fermented alcoholic beverage containing malt and hops, similar to but heavier than beer. Ale, fermented cereal beverage brewed from an infusion of grain, primarily malted barley, and flavoured with hops. About 1524, before the introduction of hops from the Netherlands into England and Germany, the term ale was used for any fermented malt beverage. After 1524 the term was applied to all hop-flavoured brews, but has since gradually come to indicate only those produced by the top-fermentation process. Ale has a stronger hop flavour and higher alcoholic content than beer. 2. Festival in England during the Middle Ages wherein ale was the main beverage consumed.
Ale Knight One who spent a lot of time in ale houses.
Ale-barrel A barrel for ale, a measure of 36 gallons (formerly 32 gallons). Ale-dagger Dagger carried for self-protection in alehouse fights. Ale-dame Synonyme for alewife. Ale-draper An alehouse keeper. Ale-fat A vat in which ale is brewed. Ale-fed One who drinks considerable amounts of ale.
Ale-firkin A small barrel of ale, a measure of 9 gallons (formerly 8 gallons). Ale-garland Synonyme for Alebush. Ale-gill Ale made with ground ivy instead of hops.
Ale-meat Synonyme for ale-berry. Ale-passion Headache after ale drinking, hangover.
Ale-pock An ulcer caused by ale-drinking. Ale-pole A pole post set up as a sign of an ale-house.
Ale-post Synonyme for Alebush. Ale-scope Colloquial term for someone who frequently told jokes in ale houses. Ale-score A reckoning for ale consumed. Ale-scot Tribute paid in ale. Ale-silver Ale tax paid in London. Ale-spinner Brewer. Ale-stake Synonyme for Ale-pole. Ale-stand A bar in an ale-house. Ale-taker Purveyor of ale. Ale-tap Strictly the tap, whence ale is drawn, hence the room or place where it is kept. Ale-taster Synonyme for Aleconner. Ale-toast A toast in ale.
Ale-tunning Brewing of ale. Ale-vat A vat in which ale is brewed. Ale-washed Colloquial term for being drunk.
Ale-wife Woman who worked in an alehouse and usually made the ale, forerunner of the barmaid.
Ale-wisp Street term fo a drunkard. Ale-wort The fermenting infusion of malt. Ale-yeast Yeast produced in the brewing of ale.
Alebench Bench located outside or inside an alehouse.
Aleberry Beverage common in England during 1600s made with boiled ale, bread, sugar and spices.
Alebrue Synonyme for Aleberry. Alebush Bush usually made with ivy, hung from pole outside an alehouse. Alecie Being drunk.
Aleconner Goverment official in England who in historic time looked after quality control in ale. Alegar Sour ale.
Alehead Colloquial term for a drunkard.
Alehead Wind Colloquial term for a drunken sailor.
Alehoof Same as Ale-gill.
Alehorn Drinkingvessel for ale made from horn of an ox or cow.
Alehouse Place where ale was served. Alehouses were licensed in England and Wales 1551.
Alentol Amfetamine sulfate. Alepam Oxazepam. Alepsal Phenobarbital. Alepsia Phenobarbital. Alepsina Phenobarbital sodium. Alerbuf Phenobarbital. Alergin Phenobarbital. Alergowas asma Barbital. Alerta Colloquial term for vigilant, alert. Alertol Pipradrol hydrochloride. Alertonic Pipradrol hydrochloride. Alertyl Amfetamine sulfate. Alexander the Great 356-323 B.C. King of Macedonia (336-323) and conquerer of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia. His reign marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Age. Described by many historians as an alcoholic. The theory has been advanced that he was actually an alcoholic having, for example, killed his friend Clitus in a drunken fury. He later regretted this act deeply. Alexithymia No words or feelings.Elusive or absent feelings due to continuos drug misuse. The term was introduced 1972 by P.E. Sife-
Alfa Bertelli Phenobarbital. Alfa-1,3-dimetil-4-fenil-4-propionoxi-piperidina Alphaprodine. Alfa-1,3-dimetyl-4-fenyl-4-propionoksy-piperidin Alphaprodine. Alfa-3-acetoksy-6-dimetylamino-4.4-difenylheptan Alphacetylmethadol. Alfa-3-etil-1-metil-4-fenil-4-propion-oxipiperidina Alphameprodine. Alfa-3-etyl-1-metyl-4-fenyl-4-propion-oksypiperidin Alphameprodine. Alfa-6-dimetilamino-4,4-difenil-3-acetoxiheptano Alphacetylmethadol. Alfa-6-dimetilamino-4,4-difenil-3-heptanol Alphamethadol. Alfa-6-dimetylamino-4,4-difenyl-3-heptanol Alphamethadol. Alfa-acetylmetadol Alphacetylmethadol. Alfa-metilfentanilo Alpha-methylfentanyl. Alfacetilmetadol Alphacetylmethadol. Alfacetilmetadolo Alphacetylmethadol. Alfameprodin Alphameprodine. Alfameprodina Alphameprodine. Alfametadolo Alphamethadol. Alfametadylacetat Alphacetylmethadol. Alfaprodin Alphaprodine. Alfenta Alfentanil.
Alfentanil C21H32N6O3, derívate of fentanyl. Narcotic analgesic opioid, synthetic substance under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight: 416.5. Percentage of anhydrous base: 100. Alfentanil hydrochloride C21H32N6O3 HCl H2O, derivate of fentanyl. Narcotic analgesic opioid, synthetic substance under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I. Molecular weight: 471.0. Percentage of anhydrous base: 88.4. Alfimid Glutethimide.
Algafan Dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride. Algantine Pethidine hydrochloride. Algarobo Anadenanthera colbrina. Algarroba de yupa Anadenanthera peregrina.
Algeril Propiram fumarate. Algiacton Hydromorphone. Algicones Phenobarbital. Algidon Methadone hydrochloride or Phenobarbital.
Algil Pethidine hydrochloride. Algilise Pethidine hydrochloride. Alginina Meprobamate. Algisédal Phenobarbital. Algiton Methadone hydrochloride Algo Marijuana.
Algo-prolixan Dextropropoxyphene hydro-chloride.
Algodex Dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride.
Algodones Colloquial term for bits of cotton saturated with drug solution to strain foreign agents.
Algolisin, -a, -e Methadone hydrochloride. Algolysin, -e Methadone hydrochloride. Algopan Opium, mixed alkaloids of. Algopent Pentazocine or Pentazocine hydrochloride or Pentazocine lactate. Algophon Opium, mixed alkaloids of. Algostase Amobarbital. Algosyn Methadone hydrochloride Algotase Amobarbital. Algovetan Methadone hydrochloride. Algoxal, -e Methadone hydrochloride Algren, Nelson 1909-1981. American writer noted for his novels about the pride and longings of impoverished people, including The Man with the Golden Arm (1949) in which he describes heroin addiction. The novel was turned in to a movie in 1955. Alguidon Methadone. Alguil Pethidine. Alhydrox Phenobarbital. Ali Mohammad of Shiraz See: Bab. Aliamba Cannabis. Alibido The abscence of libido. Alice 1. Colloquial term for LSD. 2. Colloquial term for mushroom. Alice B. Toklas
1. 1877-1967, american writer remembered as the secretary and longtime companion of Gertrude Stein. Her works include cookbooks and a volume of memoirs. 2. Colloquial term for marijuana brownie. Alice B Toklas used hashish in a fudge recipe, Alice B. Toklas Cookbook, 1929. The recipe inspired the movie I Love you Alice B. Toklas. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865), by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), and its sequel, Through the looking glass (1871), are usually considered the most famous children's books written in English. The story is a dream in which Alice changes size, recites nonsensical parodies of moral verse, encounters such fantastic creatures as the Mad Hatter and the Cheshire Cat, and finally asserts herself against loud but empty threats of trial and execution. Children probably enjoy Alice's triumph and the ingenious invention of the book, while adult readers and critics are engaged by the themes of growing up, death and extinction, and the arbitrariness of moral and social authority. The story was made into an animated film by Walt Disney in 1951 and has been the subject of numerous plays. Alidin Amobarbital. Alidine Anileridine.
Alien sex fiend Colloquial term for strong powdered PCP with heroin. Alight Colloquial term for being drunk. Alijo Colloquial term for contraband, stash, cache of drugs. Alilbarbital Butalbital. Alilprodina Allylprodine. Alipid Amfepramone hydrochloride. Alised Phenobarbital. Aliseum Diazepam. Alisobumal, -um Butalbital. Alitinal Amobarbital sodium. Alivianado Mexican colloquial term for cocaine user.
Alk 1. Colloquial term for liquor. 2. Colloquial term for an alcoholic. Alka-phen Phenobarbital. Alkabarb Phenobarbital. Alkadonna Phenobarbital. Alkaloid One of a large group of nitrogenous basic substances found in plants. They are usually very bitter, and many are pharmacologically active. Examples are atropine, caffeine. coniine, morphine, nicotine, quinine, strychnine. The term is also applied to synthetic substances (artificial alkaloids) which have structures similar to plant alkaloids, such as procaine.
Alkaloids, group of mildly alkaline compounds, mostly of plant origin and of moderate molecular complexity. Even in very small amounts, the alkaloids produce strong physiological effects on the body. All contain nitrogen atoms that are structurally related to those of ammonia.
Nearly 3000 alkaloids have been recorded; the first to be prepared synthetically (1886) was one of the simplest, called coniine, or 2-propyl piperidine, C5H10NC3H7. It is highly poisonous; less than 0.2 g (0.007 oz) is fatal. Coni-ine, obtained from seeds of the hemlock, was the poison used in the execution of Socrates. Some 30 of the known alkaloids are used in medicine. For example, atropine, obtained from belladonna, causes dilation of the pupils; morphine is a painkiller; quinine is a specific remedy for malaria; nicotine is a potent insecticide; and reserpine is a valuable tranquilizer. any of a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases. Alkaloids have diverse and important physiological effects on humans and other animals. Well-known alkaloids include morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, and nicotine. Alkaloids are found primarily in plants and are especially common in certain families of flowering plants. More than 3,000 different types of alkaloids have been identified in a total of more than 4,000 plant species. In general, a given species contains only a few kinds of alkaloids, though both the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and the ergot fungus (Claviceps) each contain about 30 different types. Certain plant families are particularly rich in alkaloids; all plants of the poppy family (Papaveraceae) are thought to contain them, for example. The Ranunculaceae (buttercups), Solanaceae (nightshades), and Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) are other prominent alkaloid-containing families. A few alkaloids have been found in animal species, such as the New World beaver (Castor canadensis) and poison-dart frogs (Phyllobates). Ergot and a few other fungi also produce them. The function of alkaloids in plants is not yet understood. It has been suggested that they are simply waste products of plants' metabolic processes, but evidence suggests that they may serve specific biological functions. In some plants, the concentration of alkaloids increases just prior to seed formation and then drops off when the seed is ripe, suggesting that alkaloids may play a role in this process. Alkaloids may also protect some plants from destruction by certain insect species.
The chemical structures of alkaloids are extremely variable. Generally, an alkaloid contains at least one nitrogen atom in an amine-type structure-i.e., one derived from ammonia by replacing hydrogen atoms with hydrogen-carbon groups called hydrocarbons. This or another nitrogen atom can be active as a base in acid-base reactions. The name alkaloid ("alkali-like") was originally applied to the substances because, like the inorganic alkalis, they react with acids to form salts. Most alkaloids have one or more of their nitrogen atoms as part of a ring of atoms, frequently called a cyclic system. Alkaloid names generally end in the suffix -ine, a reference to their chemical classification as amines. In their pure form most alkaloids are colourless, nonvolatile, crystalline solids. They also tend to have a bitter taste.
Interest in the alkaloids stems from the wide variety of physiological effects (both wanted and unwanted) they produce in humans and other animals. Their use dates back to ancient civilizations, but scientific study of the chemicals had to await the growth of organic chemistry, for not until simple organic bases were understood could the intricate structure of the alkaloids be unraveled. The first alkaloid to be isolated and crystallized was the potent active constituent of the opium poppy, morphine, in 1805-06.
Alkaloids are often classified on the basis of their chemical structure. For example, those alkaloids that contain a ring system called indole are known as indole alkaloids. On this basis, the principal classes of alkaloids are the pyrrolidines, pyridines, tropanes, pyrrolizidi-nes, isoquinolines, indoles, quinolines, and the terpenoids and steroids. Alternatively, alkaloids can be classified according to the biological system in which they occur. For example, the opium alkaloids occur in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). This dual classification system actually produces little confusion because there is a rough correlation between the chemical types of alkaloids and their biological distribution. The medicinal properties of alkaloids are quite diverse. Morphine is a powerful narcotic used for the relief of pain, though its addictive properties limit its usefulness. Codeine, the methyl ether derivative of morphine found in the opium poppy, is an excellent analgesic that is relatively nonaddictive. Certain alkaloids act as cardiac or respiratory stimulants. Quin-idine, which is obtained from plants of the genus Cinchona, is used to treat arrhythmias, or irregular rhythms of the heartbeat. Many alkaloids affect respiration, but in a complicated manner such that severe respiratory depression may follow stimulation. The drug lobeline (from Lobelia inflata) is safer in this respect and is therefore clinically useful. Ergonovine (from the fungus Claviceps purpurea) and ephedrine (from Ephedra species) act as blood-vessel constrictors. Ergonovine is used to reduce uterine hemorrhage after childbirth, and ephedrine is used to relieve the discomfort of common colds, sinusitis, hay fever, and bronchial asthma.
Many alkaloids possess local anesthetic properties, though clinically they are seldom used for this purpose. Cocaine (from Erythroxylon coca) is a very potent local anesthetic. Quinine (from Cinchona species) is a powerful antima-larial agent that was formerly the drug of choice for treating that disease, though it has been largely replaced by less toxic and more effective synthetic drugs. The alkaloid tubocu-rarine is the active ingredient in the South American arrow poison, curare (obtained from Chondodendron tomentosum), and is used as a muscle relaxant in surgery. Two alkaloids, vincristine and vinblastine (from Vinca rosea), are widely used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of many types of cancer. Nicotine obtained from the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) is the principal alkaloid and chief addictive ingredient of the tobacco smoked in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Some alkaloids are illicit drugs and poisons. These include the hallucinogenic drugs mescaline (from Anhalonium species) and psilocybine (from Psilocybe mexicana). Synthetic derivatives of the alkaloids morphine and lysergic acid (from C. purpurea) produce heroin and LSD, respectively. The alkaloid coniine is the active component of the poison hemlock (Co-nium maculatum). Strychnine (from Strychnos species) is another powerful poison. Special methods have been developed for isolating commercially useful alkaloids. In most cases, plant tissue is processed to obtain aqueous solutions of the alkaloids. The alkaloids are then recovered from the solution by a process called extraction, which involves dissolving some components of the mixture with reagents. Different alkaloids must then be separated and purified from the mixture. Chromatography may be used to take advantage of the different degrees of adsorption of the various alkaloids on solid material such as alumina or silica. Alkaloids in crystalline form may be obtained using certain solvents. Alkaloidal base Colloquial term for smokable form of cocaine (also called "freebase"), a purified base form made from cocaine (street cocaine) by processing with volatile chemicals (ether) , often smoked through a water pipe, identical to crack although made by a different process.
Alkaloideorum omnium opii hydrochlorates Opium, mixed alkaloids of. Alkaloidetum opii Opium, mixed alkaloids of.
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