Agueacollacactus alucinogena

Pedro.

Aguinalde Turbina corymbosa. Aguiyu Piper auritum. Aguja 1. Argentinean colloquial term for a thin marijuana cigarette. 2. Mexican colloquial term for injection-needle. Agustional Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. Ah-chit Singaporean term for a person who informs authorities of the identeties or activities of other persons. Ah-pen-yen Colloquial term for opium. AH 3232 Clorazepate or Clorazepate dipo-tassium. Ahifen Opium. Ahiphena Opium.

Ahmchen German wine measure, 28,5 liters. AHR-3070-C Medazepam. Ahuapatli Brunfelisa. Ai-ra-hoey Thai term for heroin. Ai-tom-my Singaporean colloquial term for: Do you want to buy drugs? Aid makhlif Colloquial term for cannabis. AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) a disabling and fatal disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is thought that everyone infected with HIV will eventually develop AIDS, because the body's immune system is steadily weakened by HIV. Unable to fight off infections, most people die within three years of the first signs of AIDS appearing. Injecting drug users represent a significant sub-group of people with AIDS or who have been infected by the HIV virus. AIDS is usually characterised by various combinations of symptoms and diseases, such as diarrhoea, fever, wasting, fungal infections, tuberculosis, pneumonia, lymphoma (tumours known as B-cell lymphomas), failure to thrive and Kaposi's sarcoma, which shows up as purple lesions on the skin. There is also a relatively high incidence of neurological complications due to damage to cells of the brain. Several strains of HIV have been isolated, and it appears to be continually changing in genetic makeup. This makes development of a vaccine that is able to raise protective antibodies to all virus strains a very difficult task. Nevertheless, progress has been made in a very short time in identifying the molecular makeup of HIV, its modes of transmission, and the mechanisms by which it produces disease. Much research centres on solving the problems of treating people who already have AIDS and those who have been infected with the virus but have not yet developed the syndrome.

AIDS raises many legal, ethical, and civil rights issues. Among these are mandatory testing of all citizens or of particular populations (for example, marriage license applicants); discrimination in housing, employment, and medical treatment; and confidentiality versus notification of sex partners. The first case of AIDS was identified in New York in 1979. The cause of the disease, a retrovirus now called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV; see HTLV), was identified in 1983-84 by scientists working at the National Cancer Institute in the United States and the Pasteur Institute in France. These workers also developed tests for HIV, enabling researchers to follow the transmission of the virus and to study the origin and mechanism of the disease. Aimies 1. Colloquial term for amfetamines. 2. Colloquial term for amyl nitrite. Aimpa Anadenanthera colbrina. Aimpa-kid Anadenanthera colbrina. Ain Brugmanisa insignis. Ain-va-i Brugmanisa insignis. Ain-vai Brugmansia suaveolens. Aina Cocaine.

Aincy South African Colloquial term for cannabis.

AIP 1. Acronym for Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan synonyme for Golden Crescent. 2. Colloquial term for heroin from Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan. Air blast Colloquial term for inhalant. Air mule Colloquial term for pilot who smuggles drugs.

Air-freshener See: Volatile substances. Air-mail Colloquial term for small amount of narcotics.

Airak Kyrgysz alcoholic beverage made of cow or horse-milk.

Airelle uligineuse Vaccinum uliginosum. Airet R Secbutabarbital. Airet Y Secbutabarbital. Airhead Colloquial term for marijuana user. Airplane 1. Colloquial term for marijuana. 2. Colloquial term for holder for a marijuana cigarette. 3. Colloquial term for LSD with logo of an airplane.

Airplane glue See: Volatile substances. Ait makhlif Cannabis.

Ai'yuku Anadenanthera peregrina. Ajenjo 1. Spanish name for absinthe. 2. Artemisia mexicana. Ajenjo comun Artemisia absinthium. Ajenjo del pais Artemisia mexicana. Ajkits Turnera diffusa. Ajo sacha Mansoa allaceae, Ayahuasca admixture plant. Ajuca See: Jurema. Ajfl-i-turkf Persian name for Calamus. Aka-~iwa Cacao. Aka-~iwe-te Cacao. Aka-'i Cacao.

Akalon-T Methaqualone or Methaqualone hydrochloride. Akamon Bromazepam. AKAN Akronym for Arbeidslivets Komite mot Alkoholisme og Narkomani, norwegian organisation of employers an trade unions to prevent and treat alcoholism and drug dependence in the workplace.

Akapulko altini Turkish colloquial term for marijuana.

Akathisia 1. A condition of motor restlessness in which there is a feeling of muscular quivering, an urge to move about constantly, and an inability to sit still, a common ex-trapyrimidal side effects of neuroleptic drugs and in Parkonsons disease. 2. An inability to sit down because of intense anxiety at the thought of doing so.

Greek a, negative kathisis, a sitting down. Akinesia 1. Absence or poverty of movements. 2. The temporary paralysis of a muscle by the injection of procaine. Greek a, negative kinesis, motion.

Akkordarbeit German colloquial term for sale of drugs under market price. Aklonil Clonazepam. Akoo-i Cacao. Akonit Aconitum napellus. Akoniton Aconitum napellus. Akoron Greek name for Calamus. AKS 1. Automatic rifle, rapid firing, use in drug sales. 2. Look-alike amfetamines - typically caffeine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and/or phenylpropanolamine. Aksir-i-turki Calamus. Aktederon Amfetamine phosphate. Aktedrin Amfetamine sulfate. Aktedron Amfetamine. Aktedrone Amfetamine sulfate. Aktilin Methylphenidate. Aktodron Amfetamine sulfate. A'ku:duwha Anadenanthera peregrina. Akvavit See: Aquavit.

Akzept German organisation founded 1990 with the goal to work for an "accepting and human drug policy". It is a part of the European movement to decriminalize drugs.

Akua Anadenanthera peregrina.

Al K Hall Colloquial term for alcohol.

Al K. Hol Colloquial term for alcohol.

Al punto Colloquial term for being high on drugs.

Al quinnab Hashish.

Al-Anon Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon and Alateen), world-wide fellowship of people whose lives have been affected by others' addiction to alcohol. It is comprised of two separate programs, Al-Anon and Alateen. Membership in Al-Anon is open to families, friends, and employers of alcoholics; Alateen is a program designed for young people under the age of 21. The basic principle of both groups is that alcoholism is a family disease; those closely involved with alcoholics may suffer psychologically and spiritually and often physically. Both programs offer comfort, hope, and understanding to those who have lived in confusion and despair. Al-Anon was started in New York City in 1952 by Lois W., wife of one of the founders of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and Anne B. Alateen groups were first organised in California in 1957. Although independent of AA, both programs use the AA 12 steps to recovery and conduct their meetings in a similar fashion. Support comes entirely through voluntary contributions from members. By 1990 there were about 32,000 Al-Anon and Alateen groups in more than 112 countries. Al-Anon Family Groups Headquarters, Inc., maintains its World Service Office in New York City. Al-Anon kiss Colloquial term for administration of a kiss while inhaling through the nose to detect any possible smell of alcoholic beverages.

Al-Anon salute Colloquial term for finger pointing; pointing out problems.

Al-Atot Colloquial term for support group for small children of alcoholics (sub-teens), based on the 12 steps of AA.

Al-pil-ca Psidium guajava.

Al. 1. Abbreviation for alcohol. 2. Abbreviation for alcoholic.

ALAC Acronym for the Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zeeland. Aladdin The idle, good-for-nothing boy hero of one of the most famous tales from The Thousand and One Nights, obtains a magic lamp that, when rubbed, has the power to summon a genie who will do his bidding. With the lamp, after many narrow escapes, he gains wealth, power, and the hand of the sultan's daughter. See: Arabian nights. Aladrine Secobarbital sodium. Alahan Piper auritum.

Alambic Synonyme for Alembic. Alamout black hash Colloquial term for hashish mixed with belladonna. Alamut Mountain stronghold in the tales about the assasins and their leader of Alo-Addin, Hasan-ibn-Sabah. Alapryl Halazepam. Alased Phenobarbital. Alateen 12 step organisation for youths between 12 and 20 years that has a freinds or a family member, often a parent, who have misused alcohol or drugs. The alcoholic or drug abuser do not have to be a member of the AA or in treatment he or she can even be dead.

Alateen was founded 1957 in Californien of a son of an alcoholic and AA-member, and had a mother who were active in Al-Anon. Sister organisation has been founded all over the world.

Alba de narco Spanish Colloquial term for drug agents. Albaton Pentazocine. Albego Camazepam. Albemap Dexamfetamine sulfate. Alboral Diazepam. Alboral 24 AP Diazepam. Alboral GD Diazepam. Album covers Colloquial term for LSD. Alc. 1. Abbreviation for alcohol. 2. Abbreviation for alcoholic.

Alcadd test A questionnaire used to detect alcohol addiction.

Alcaloida opii omnia Opium, mixed alkaloids of.

Alcaloideorum omnium opiihydrochlo-rates Opium, mixed alkaloids of. Alcaloides totales del opio Opium, mixed alkaloids of.

Alcaloidi totali del opio Opium, mixed alkaloids of.

Alcance Colloquial term for potency of drug. Alcanque Portugesean term for Indian hemp. Alcaucil Argentinean colloquial term for informant.

Alchemy Ancient art practised especially in the Middle Ages, devoted chiefly to discovering a substance that would transmute the more common metals into gold or silver and to finding a means of indefinitely prolonging human life. Although its purposes and techniques were dubious and often illusory, alchemy was in many ways the predecessor of modern science, especially the science of chemistry. The birthplace of alchemy was ancient Egypt, where, in Alexandria, it began to flourish in the Hellenistic period; simultaneously, a school of alchemy was developing in China. The writings of some of the early Greek philosophers might be considered to contain the first chemical theories; and the theory advanced in the 5th century BC by Empedocles that all things are composed of air, earth, fire, and water, was influential in alchemy. The Roman emperor Caligula is said to have instituted experiments for producing gold from orpiment, a sulphide of arsenic, and the emperor Diocletian is said to have ordered all Egyptian works concerning the chemistry of gold and silver to be burned in order to stop such experiments. Zosimus the Theban (about AD 250-300) discovered that sulphuric acid is a solvent of metals, and he liberated oxygen from the red oxide of mercury. The fundamental concept of alchemy stemmed from the Aristotelian doctrine that all things tend to reach perfection. Because other metals were thought to be less 6perfect6 than gold, it was reasonable to assume that nature formed gold out of other metals deep within the earth and that with sufficient skill and diligence an artisan could duplicate this process in the workshop. Efforts toward this goal were empirical and practical at first, but by the 4th century AD, astrology, magic, and ritual had begun to gain prominence. A school of pharmacy flourished in Arabia during the Caliphates of the Abbasids from 750 to 1258. The earliest known work of this school is the Summa Per-fectionis (Summit of Perfection), attributed to the Arabian scientist and philosopher Geber. This work is consequently the oldest chemistry book proper in the world and is a collection of all that was then known and believed. The Arabian alchemists worked with gold and mercury, arsenic and sulphur, and salts and acids, and they became familiar with a wide range of what are now called chemical reagents. They believed that metals were compound bodies, made up of mercury and sulphur in different proportions. Their scientific creed was the potentiality of transmutation, and their methods were mostly blind gropings. Yet, in this way, they found many new substances and invented many useful processes. From the Arabs, alchemy generally found its way through Spain into Europe. The earliest authentic works extant on European alchemy are those of the English monk Roger Bacon and the German philosopher Albertus Magnus. Both believed in the possibility of transmuting inferior metals into gold. This idea excited the imagination, and later the avarice, of many persons during the Middle Ages. They sought to fabricate or discover a substance, the so-called philosopher's stone, so much more perfect than gold that it could be used to bring the baser metals up to the perfection of gold. Roger Bacon believed that gold dissolved in aqua regia was the elixir of life. Albertus

Magnus had a great mastery of the practical chemistry of his time. The Italian scholastic philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas, the Catalan churchman Raymond Lully, and the Benedictine monk Basil Valentine (flourished 15th century) also did much to further the progress of chemistry, although along alchemical lines, in discovering the uses of antimony, the manufacture of amalgams, and the isolation of spirits of wine, or ethyl alcohol. Important compilations of recipes and techniques in this period include The Pirotechnia (1540; trans. 1943), by the Italian metallurgist Vannoccio Biringuccio; Concerning Metals (1556; trans. 1912), by the German mineralogist Georgius Agricola; and Alchemia (1597), by Andreas Libavius, a German naturalist and chemist. Most famous of all was the 16th-century Swiss alchemist Philippus Paracelsus. Paracelsus held that the elements of compound bodies were salt, sulphur, and mercury, representing, respectively, earth, air, and water; fire he regarded as imponderable, or nonmaterial. He believed, however, in the existence of one undiscovered element common to all, of which the four elements of the ancients were merely derivative forms. This prime element of creation Paracelsus termed alkahest, and he maintained that if it were found, it would prove to be the philosopher's stone, the universal medicine, and the irresistible solvent. After Paracelsus, the alchemists of Europe became divided into two groups. One group was composed of those who earnestly devoted themselves to the scientific discovery of new compounds and reactions; these scientists were the legitimate ancestors of modern chemistry as ushered in by the work of the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier. The other group took up the visionary, metaphysical side of the older alchemy and developed it into a practice based on imposture, necromancy, and fraud, from which the prevailing notion of alchemy is derived.

Alchy 1. Colloquial term for liquor. 2. Colloquial term for an alcoholic. 3. Colloquial term for home brewed and distilled alcohol. Alciodid Dextromoramide. Alcioid Dextromoramide. Alcitex Phenobarbital. Alcoate Shortened form of alcoholate. Alcohate Shortened form of alcoholate. ALCOHOL Introduction History Beverages Chemistry Pharmacology Dependence Syndrome Physical effects

Social effects Word history

ALCOHOL - Introduction Alcohol is in this encyclopaedia mainly defined as any intoxicating beverage containing ethanol, definition 1 and 2. The word alcohol has however a long history and many different definitions in differents contexts which are here briefly desci-bed:

1. A colourless, volatile, flammable liquid, C2H5OH, synthesized or obtained by fermentation of sugars and starches and widely used, either pure or denatured, as a solvent and in drugs, cleaning solutions, explosives, and intoxicating beverages. Also called ethanol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol.

2. Intoxicating liquor containing alcohol.

3. Any of a series of hydroxyl compounds, the simplest of which are derived from saturated hydrocarbons, have the general formula CnH2n+1OH, and include ethanol and methanol.

4.The oldest definition: The fine metallic powder used in the East to stain the eyelids, etc. Powdered ore of antimony trisulphide or powdered galena or lead ore.

5. Hence by extension: Any fine impalpable powder produced by trituration, or especially by sublimation. (e g alcohol of sulphur).

In chemical terminology, alcohols are a large group of organic compounds derived from hydrocarbons and containing one or more hydroxyl (NOH) groups. Ethanol (C2H5OH, ethyl alcohol) is one of this class of compounds, and is the main psychoactive ingredient in alcoholic beverages. By extension the term "alcohol" is also used to refer to alcoholic beverages.

Ethanol results from the fermentation of sugar by yeast. Under usual conditions, beverages produced by fermentation have an alcohol concentration of no more than 14%. In the production of spirits by distillation, ethanol is boiled out of the fermented mixture and recollected as an almost pure condensate. Apart from its use for human consumption, ethanol is used as a fuel as a solvent, and in chemical manufacturing (see alcohol, non-beverage). Absolute alcohol (anhydrous ethanol) refers to ethanol containing not more than 1% by mass of water. In statistics on alcohol production or consumption, absolute alcohol refers to the alcohol content (as 100% ethanol of alcoholic beverages).

Methanol (CH3OH), also known as methyl alcohol and wood alcohol, is chemically the simplest of the alcohols. It is used as an industrial solvent and also as an adulterant to denature ethanol and make it unfit to drink (methylated spirits). Methanol is highly toxic; de pending on the amount consumed, it may produce blurring of vision, blindness, coma, and death.

Other non-beverage alcohols that are occasionally consumed, with potentially harmful effects, are isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol, often in rubbing alcohol) and ethylene glycol (used as antifreeze for automobiles). Alcohol is a sedative/hypnotic with effects similar to those of barbiturates. Apart from social effects of use, alcohol intoxication may result in poisoning or even death: whilst long-term heavy use may result in dependence or in a wide variety of physical and organic mental disorders. Alcohol-related mental and behavioural disorders (F10) are classified as psy-choactive substance use disorders in ICD-10 (F10-F19).

ALCOHOL - History Alcohol was present on the earth long before humans. It first developed some 1.5 billion years ago when bacteria consumed plant cells and through this process developed alcohol. It is the oldest known drug and has been used at least since the earliest societies for which records exist. Of the numerous types of alcohol, ethyl alcohol is the type consumed in drinking. In its pure form it is a clear substance with little odor.

Ethanol is developed naturally as a by-product when yeasts that are free-floating in the air consume the sugars present in fruits, vegetable and grains. This can occur without human intervention. Insects, birds, and animals is often become drunk from eating fermented fruits or berries. It is not known when man first learned the effects of alcohol and how to make wine, beer and other fermented alcoholic beverages. Alcohol was probably discovered by many early cultures simultaneously and independent. Most cultures, with a few exceptions has known how to make alcohol. Wine and beer making is as old as agriculture itself. There is firm evidence from chemical analyses of the residues found in pots in Mesopotamia (nowadays Iran) that wine was produced around 3. 500 BC. Alcoholic drinks in historical times were slightly different from todays. Fermented milk, horse- and goat milk, honey beverages such as mead (which may be as ancient as wine and beer) were common. Wine and beer were often sweet dark and with a lot of sediments and were considered as an important food. Home-brewed beer tended to be highly nutritious and was only drinkable for a few days before becoming vinegary while wine was possible to save as a nutrisious source for long time if it was sealed. in Egypt 2700-1200 BC beer was an important part of the diet. Early papyri praises the good of beer, contain commercial messages for alcoholic beverages, warnings to young people about drinking to much etc.

The earliest known written law about alcohol is found from Hammurabis reign in Babylon (2.000 B.C. This regulated the sale of beer and wine, established standards of measure, consumer protections and the responsibilities of alcohol salesmen.

In China archeological findings suggests that wine and grain-based beer were used in religious ceremonies. The only parts of the world that seems not to have used alcohol extensively seems to be North America and Oceania that did not get the alcoholic beverages until they got in contact with the European colonizers.

Greece and Rome (800 BC - AD 400) were relatively sober societies wine was not drunk until after meals and often diluted with water. They often contrasted their temperate habits to those of neighboring populations such as the barbarians. Alcohol however played an important role for medical and religious purposes. Heavy drinking was part of religious orgies (Dionysian and Bacchiac). Alexander the Great, who conquered most of Europe 325 BC was infamous for his chronic alcoholism.

Alcohol played an important role among Jews and Christians. Jesus choose wine to symbolize His blood in the Holy Communion. During the 1500s the distilling technique was spread over Europe from Russia and cheap vodka and gin was mass produced. Under the urbanization and industrialization the alcohol problems had enormous proportions. The temperance movement got public and political support, which resulted in regulations and taxation in order to control the alcohol misuse. It culminated in total prohibition of alcohol in many countries in the fist part of the 1900s. It had initially positive impact on public health but after a while people where suffering from bad quality illegal alcohol and it boosted organized crime as a substantial part of the population did not support the prohibition. today most countries has an active alcohol policy aiming at minimizing the alcohol misuse by limiting the consumption through regulations, taxes, treatment and prevention. The WHO has adopted a program to decrease the alcohol consumption.

ALCOHOL - Beverages People drink alcohol in three main kinds of beverages: Beers, which are made from grain through brewing and fermentation and contain from 3% to 8% alcohol.

Wines, which are fermented from fruits such as grapes and contain from 8% to 12% alcohol naturally, and up to 21% when fortified by adding alcohol.

Distilled beverages (spirits) such as Whiskey, Gin, and Vodka, which on the average contain from 40% to 50% alcohol. Drinkers may become addicted to any of these beverages. Almost all alcoholic beverages are prepared by fermentation, followed in the case of spirits by distillation. Beer and ale are produced from fermented grain (malted barley, rice, millet, etc.) often with hops added. Wines are produced from fermented fruits or berries, particularly grapes. Other traditional fermentation products are mead (from honey), cider (from apples or other fruits), sake (from rice), pulque (from the maguey cactus), and chicha (from maize).

Spirits vary in the underlying grain or fruit raw material on which they are based. for instance, vodka is based on grain or potatoes, whisky on rye or corn, rum on sugar cane, and brandy on grapes or other fruit. Sherry, port, and other fortihed wines are wines to which spirits have been added, usually to give an ethanol content of about 20%. Alcohol can also be synthesised chemically, e.g. from petroleum, but this has rarely been used for alcoholic beverages. Several thousand congenersNconstituents of alcoholic beverages other than ethanol and waterNhave so far been identified, but ethanol is the main psy-choactive ingredient in all common alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages have been used since ancient times in most traditional societies, except in Australasia, North America (north, roughly, of the Mexican border), and Oceania. Many traditional fermented drinks had a relatively low alcohol content and could not be stored for more than a few days. Most governments seek to license or otherwise control (and tax) the production and sale of alcohol, although home production of various types of alcoholic beverage may be permitted. Alcoholic beverages produced illicitly, notably spirits, often have a distinct identity (e.g. 'moonshine" or "white lightning" in the USA, "poteen" in Ireland, "samogon" in countries of the former Soviet Union) and may be contaminated with poisons (e.g, lead) from the production process.

ALCOHOL - Chemistry Alcohols are a class of organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group, OH, attached to a carbon atom. Alcohols have one, two, or three hydroxyl groups attached to their molecules and are thus classified as monohydric, dihydric, or trihydric, respectively. Methanol and ethanol are mono-hydric alcohols. Alcohols are further classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary, according to whether one, two, or three other carbon atoms are bound to the carbon atom to which the hy-droxyl group is bound. Alcohols, although analogous to inorganic bases, are neither acid nor alkaline. They are characterized by many common reactions, the most important of which is the reaction with acids to form substances called esters, which are analogous to inorganic salts. Alcohols are normal byproducts of digestion and chemical processes within cells and are found in the tissues and fluids of animals and plants. Wood Alcohol

Methyl alcohol, or methanol, CH3 OH, is the simplest of all the alcohols. It was formerly made by the destructive distillation of wood; however, almost all of the methanol produced today is synthetic, made from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Methanol is used as a denaturant for grain alcohol (see below), as an antifreeze, as a solvent for gums and lacquers, and in the synthesis of many organic compounds, particularly formaldehyde. When taken internally, by either drinking the liquid or inhaling the vapours, methanol is extremely poisonous. Methanol melts at -97.8 C (-144.0 F), boils at 64.7 C (148.5 F), and has a specific gravity of 0.7915 at 20 C (68 F). Grain Alcohol

Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, C2H5OH, is a clear, colourless liquid, with a burning taste and characteristic, agreeable odor. Ethanol is the alcohol in such beverages as beer, wine, and brandy. Because of its low freezing point, it has been used as the fluid in thermometers for temperatures below -40; C (-40; F), the freezing point of mercury, and for other special low-temperature purpose, such as for antifreeze in automobile radiators. Ethanol is normally concentrated by distillation of dilute solutions. Commercial ethanol contains 95 percent by volume of ethanol and 5 percent of water. Dehydrating agents remove the remaining water and produce absolute ethanol. Ethanol melts at -114.1; C (-173. 4; F), boils at 78.5; C (173. 3; F), and has a specific gravity of 0.789 at 20; C (68; F). Ethanol has been made since ancient times by the fermentation of sugars. All beverage etha-nol and more than half of industrial ethanol is still made by this process. Starch from potatoes, corn, or other cereals can be the raw material. The yeast enzyme, zymase, changes the simple sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The fermentation reaction, represented by the simple equation C6H12O6 ± 2C2 H5OH + 2CO2 is actually very complex because impure cultures of yeast produce varying amounts of other substances, including fusel oil, glycerine, and various organic acids. The fermented liquid, containing from 7 to 12 percent etha-nol, is concentrated to 95 percent by a series of distillations. In the production of beverages such as whiskey and brandy, some of the impurities, which supply the flavour, are of great value. Much ethanol not intended for drinking is now made synthetically, either from acetal-dehyde made from acetylene, or from ethylene made from petroleum. A small amount is made from wood pulp.

Ethanol can be oxidized to form first acetal-dehyde and then acetic acid. It can be dehydrated to form ether. Other products made from ethanol include butadiene, used in making synthetic rubber; ethyl chloride, used as a local anaesthetic; and many other organic chemicals. Ethanol can also be mixed with gasoline to form the automobile fuel called gasohol. Ethanol is miscible (mixable) in all proportions with water and with most organic solvents. It is an excellent solvent for many substances and is used in making such products as perfumes, lacquer, celluloid, and explosives. Alcoholic solutions of non-volatile substances are called tinctures; if the solute is volatile, the solution is called a spirit. Most industrial ethanol is denatured to prevent its use as a beverage. Denaturing involves mixing ethanol with small amounts of poisonous or unpleasant substances to make the ethanol undrinkable. In the USA, for instance the removal of all these substances would involve a series of treatments more expensive than the federal excise tax on alcoholic beverages.

Higher Alcohols

Higher alcohols, those of greater molecular weight than ethyl alcohol, have many specific and general uses. Isopropyl alcohol is used extensively as a rubbing alcohol, butyl alcohol is a base for perfumes and fixatives, and others are important flavouring agents and perfumes. Polyhydric alcohols, those containing more than one eOH group, are also importantNas, for example, the trihydric alcohol known as glycerol.

ALCOHOL - Pharmacology The effects of alcohol on the human body depend on the amount of alcohol in the blood (blood-alcohol concentration BAC). This varies with the rate of consumption and with the rate at which the drinker's physical system absorbs and metabolizes alcohol. The higher the alcohol content of the beverage consumed, the more alcohol will enter the bloodstream. The amount and type of food in the stomach also affects the absorption rate. Drinking when the stomach is filled is less intoxicating than when it is empty because the foods in the stomach, which contain fat and protein, delay alcohol absorption.

Body weight is also a factor; the heavier the person, the slower the absorption of alcohol. After alcohol passes through the stomach, it is rapidly absorbed through the walls of the intestines into the bloodstream and carried to the various organ systems of the body, where it is metabolized. Although small amounts of alcohol are processed by the kidneys and secreted in the urine, and other small amounts are processed through the lungs and exhaled in the breath, most of the alcohol is metabolized by the liver. As the alcohol is metabolized, it gives off heat. The body metabolizes alcohol at about the rate of three-fourths of an ounce to one ounce of whiskey an hour. Technically it is possible to drink at the same rate as the alcohol is being oxidized out of the body. Most people, however, drink faster than this, and so the concentration of alcohol in the bloodstream keeps rising. Alcohol begins to impair the brain's ability to function when the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) reaches 0.05%, that is, 0.05 grams of alcohol per 100 cubic centimeters of blood. With a concentration of 0.20% (a level obtained from drinking about 10 ounces of whiskey), a person has difficulty controlling the emotions and may cry or laugh extensively. The person will experience a great deal of difficulty in attempting to walk and will want to lie down. When the blood-alcohol content reaches about 0.30%, which can be attained when a person rapidly drinks about a pint of whiskey, the drinker will have trouble comprehending and may become unconscious. At levels from 0.35% to 0.50%, the brain centers that control breathing and heart action are affected; concentrations above 0.50% may cause death, although a person generally becomes unconscious before absorbing a lethal dosage. ALCOHOL - Dependence syndrome Alcohol dependence syndrome is the preferred term for the more popular but relatively inexact term Alcoholism. A chronic and usually progressive illness involving the excessive, inappropriate ingestion of ethyl alcohol, whether in the form of familiar alcoholic beverages or as a constituent of other substances. It is thought to arise from a combination of a wide range of physiological, psychological, social, and genetic factors, It is characterised by an emotional and often physical dependence on alcohol, and frequently leads to brain damage or early death. Alcohol dependence is found amongst all age, socio-cultural, and economic groups with proportionately more males than females being alcohol dependent. Dependence usually develops over a period of years. Early and subtle symptoms include placing excessive importance on the availability of alcohol.

Ensuring this availability strongly influences the persons choice of associates or activities. Alcohol comes to be used more as a mood-changing drug than as a foodstuff or beverage served as a part of social custom or religious ritual. Initially, the dependent person may demonstrate a high tolerance to alcohol comes to assume more importance than personal relationships, work, reputation, or even physical health, The person commonly loses control over drinking and is increasingly unable to predict how much alcohol will be consumed on a given occasion or, if the person is currently abstaining, when the drinking will resume again. Physical addiction to the drug develops, on occasions resulting in drinking with increasing frequency to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Some common signs of developing alcohol dependence are: in the early stages, constant drinking for relief of personal problems, an increase in a persons tolerance for alcohol, onset of memory lapses while drinking ("blackouts"), surreptitious drinking, and an urgent need for the first drink ("craving"). In the middle and late phases, dependence on drinking increases and memory blackouts become more frequent. A physical dependence on alcohol first appears with early morning tremors and agitation, which require a drink for relief. In the late stage, drinking bouts are usually very frequent, There is an acute withdrawal syndrome (delirium tremens, or DT) when drinking ceases. This includes agitation, tremor, hallucination, and possibly seizures. Psychologists variously suggest that alcohol dependent have conflicts about dependency, sex roles, and family roles. However, whilst many dependent people may share experiences of loneliness, frustration, or anxiety, no one has identified a single personality type that will become alcoholic. Social an cultural factors may play a role in establishing drinking patterns and dependence. Dependence has been found to occur in succeeding generations of the same family. Although there is no conclusive indication of how the alcohol dependence of family members is associated, studies show that 50 to 80 percent of all dependents have had a close relative who was also alcohol dependent. Some researchers therefore suggest an inherited physical predisposition to alcohol dependence. Studies of animals and of human twins lend support to the theory. A 1990 report also indicated that susceptibility to at least one form of alcohol dependence may be linked in part to the presence of a particular gene on chromosome 11. The gene appears to be involved with Dependence may also be related to underlying emotional problems. For example, there is some association with a fam ily history of manic-depressive illness, and some dependent people have been known to use alcohol unwittingly to "medicate" a biological depressive disorder. A person does not have to drink every day to become alcohol dependent. Conversely, someone who drinks frequently or sometimes gets drunk is not necessarily alcohol dependent. It is possible to misuse alcohol for a short or contained period of time without developing dependence. For example some people may drink abusively during a personal crisis and then resume normal drinking. College students tend to drink more heavily than other age groups. It is often difficult to distinguish such heavy drinking from the early stages of alcohol dependence. See also: Alcohol dependence syndrome, ICD-10 and DSMIVdefinitions. ALCOHOL - Physical effects Alcohol has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body, and failure to take care of nutritional and other physical needs during prolonged periods of excessive drinking may further complicate matters. Treatment of those who have engaged in such drinking patterns often require hospitalisation. The effects on major organ systems are cumulative and include a wide range of digestive-system disorders such as ulcers, inflammation of the pancreas, and cirrhosis of the liver. The central and peripheral nervous systems can be permanently damaged. Blackouts, hallucinations, and extreme tremors may occur. The latter symptoms are involved in the most serious alcohol withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, which can prove fatal despite prompt treatment. This is in contrast to withdrawal from narcotic drugs such as heroin, which, although distressful, rarely results in death. Recent evidence has shown that heavy and even moderate drinking during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the unborn child: physical or mental retardation or both; a rare but severe expression of this damage is known as fetal alcohol syndrome. See also:

Alcohol-related brain damage Amnesic syndrome; Alcoholic cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cirrhosis. Delirium Fatty liver;

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Gastritis

Hepatitis

Myopathy

Neuropathy peripheral

Pellagra

Pancreatitis

Pseudo-Cushing syndrome

Scurvy

Thiamine deficiency syndrome Wernicke encephalopathy ALCOHOL - Alcohol dependence syndrome, ICD-10 and DSM IV definitions

Alcohol dependence syndrome is the preferred term for the more popular but relatively inexact term Alcoholism. A chronic and usually progressive illness involving the excessive, inappropriate ingestion of ethyl alcohol, whether in the form of familiar alcoholic beverages or as a constituent of other substances. It is thought to arise from a combination of a wide range of physiological, psychological, social, and genetic factors, It is characterised by an emotional and often physical dependence on alcohol, and frequently leads to brain damage or early death. Alcohol dependence is found amongst all age, socio-cultural, and economic groups with proportionately more males than females being alcohol dependent. Dependence usually develops over a period of years. Early and subtle symptoms include placing excessive importance on the availability of alcohol. Ensuring this availability strongly influences the persons choice of associates or activities. Alcohol comes to be used more as a mood-changing drug than as a foodstuff or beverage served as a part of social custom or religious ritual. Initially, the dependent person may demonstrate a high tolerance to alcohol comes to assume more importance than personal relationships, work, reputation, or even physical health, The person commonly loses control over drinking and is increasingly unable to predict how much alcohol will be consumed on a given occasion or, if the person is currently abstaining, when the drinking will resume again. Physical addiction to the drug develops, on occasions resulting in drinking with increasing frequency to avoid withdrawal symptoms. Some common signs of developing alcohol dependence are: in the early stages, constant drinking for relief of personal problems, an increase in a persons tolerance for alcohol, onset of memory lapses while drinking ("blackouts"), surreptitious drinking, and an urgent need for the first drink ("craving"). In the middle and late phases, dependence on drinking increases and memory blackouts become more frequent. A physical dependence on alcohol first appears with early morning tremors and agitation, which require a drink for relief. In the late stage, drinking bouts are usually very frequent, There is an acute withdrawal syndrome (delirium tremens, or DT) when drinking ceases. This includes agitation, tremor, hallucination, and possibly seizures. Psychologists variously suggest that alcohol dependent have conflicts about dependency, sex roles, and family roles. However, whilst many dependent people may share experiences of loneliness, frustration, or anxiety, no one has identified a single personality type that will become alcoholic. Social an cultural factors may play a role in establishing drinking patterns and dependence. Dependence has been found to occur in succeeding generations of the same family. Although there is no conclusive indication of how the alcohol dependence of family members is associated, studies show that 50 to 80 percent of all dependents have had a close relative who was also alcohol dependent. Some researchers therefore suggest an inherited physical predisposition to alcohol dependence. Studies of animals and of human twins lend support to the theory. A 1990 report also indicated that susceptibility to at least one form of alcohol dependence may be linked in part to the presence of a particular gene on chromosome 11. The gene appears to be involved with Dependence may also be related to underlying emotional problems. For example, there is some association with a family history of manic-depressive illness, and some dependent people have been known to use alcohol unwittingly to "medicate" a biological depressive disorder. A person does not have to drink every day to become alcohol dependent. Conversely, someone who drinks frequently or sometimes gets drunk is not necessarily alcohol dependent. It is possible to misuse alcohol for a short or contained period of time without developing dependence. For example some people may drink abusively during a personal crisis and then resume normal drinking. College students tend to drink more heavily than other age groups. It is often difficult to distinguish such heavy drinking from the early stages of alcohol dependence. In the World Health Organization ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Geneva, 1992 defined as: F10.2 Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (Includes: Chronic alcoholism Alcohol Dependence)

A cluster of physiological, behavioural, and cognitive phenomena in which the use of alcohol takes on a much higher priority for a given individual than other behaviours that once had greater value. A central descriptive characteristic of the dependence syndrome is the desire (often strong, sometimes overpowering) to take alcohol. There may be evidence that return to alcohol use after a period of abstinence leads to a more rapid reappearance of other features of the syndrome than occurs with nondependent individuals. Diagnostic Guidelines

A definite diagnosis of dependence should usually be made only if three or more of the following have been experienced or exhibited at some time during the previous year:

(a) a strong desire or sense of compulsion to take alcohol;

(b) difficulties in controlling alcohol-taking behaviour in terms of its onset, termination, or levels of use;

(c) a physiological withdrawal state when alcohol use has ceased or been reduced, as evidenced by: the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol; or use of the alcohol with the intention of relieving or avoiding withdrawal symptoms;

(d) evidence of tolerance, such that increased doses of alcohol are required in order to achieve effects originally produced by lower doses (clear examples of this are found in alcohol-dependent individuals who may take daily doses sufficient to incapacitate or kill nontolerant users);

(e) progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests because of alcohol use, increased amount of time necessary to obtain or take alcohol or to recover from its effects;

(f) persisting with alcohol use despite clear evidence of overtly harmful consequences, such as harm to the liver through excessive drinking; efforts should be made to determine that the user was actually, or could be expected to be, aware of the nature and extent of the harm.

Narrowing of the personal repertoire of patterns of alcohol use has also been described as a characteristic feature (e.g. a tendency to drink alcoholic drinks in the same way on weekdays and weekends, regardless of social constraints that determine appropriate drinking behaviour).

It is an essential characteristic of the dependence syndrome that either alcohol taking or a desire to take alcohol should be present; the subjective awareness of compulsion to use alcohol is most commonly seen during attempts to stop or control alcohol use. In the USA a slightly different diagnosis tradition exists mainly organised after DSMIV. Diagnostic Criteria

A.Alcohol abuse: A destructive pattern of alcohol use, leading to significant social, occupational, or medical impairment.

B.Must have three (or more) of the following, occurring when the alcohol use was at its worst:

1. Alcohol tolerance: Either need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication, or markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol.

2. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms: Either (a) or (b).

(a) Two (or more) of the following, developing within several hours to a few days of reduction in heavy or prolonged alcohol use: sweating or rapid pulse increased hand tremor insomnia nausea or vomiting physical agitation anxiety transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions grand mal seizures

(b) Alcohol is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms. 3. Alcohol was often taken in larger amounts or over a onger period than was intended 4.Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control alcohol use 5.Great deal of time spent in using alcohol, or recovering from hangovers 6.Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of alcohol use. 7.Continued alcohol use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been worsened by alcohol (e.g., continued drinking despite knowing that an ulcer was made worse by drinking alcohol) Associated Features

Learning Problem Dysarthria/Involuntary Movement Depressed Mood Somatic/Sexual Dysfunction Addiction

Sexually Deviant Behavior Dramatic/Erratic/Antisocial Personality Differential Diagnosis

Nonpathologic alcohol use for recreational or medical purposes;

repeated episodes of Alcohol Intoxication. See Dependence syndrome. ALCOHOL - Social effects Alcohol dependence and misuse in an enormous public health problem. Many studies have been made of attitudes toward drinking in different societies. Every culture has its own general ethos or sense of decorum about the use and role of alcoholic beverages within its social structure. In some cultures drinking is either forbidden or frowned upon. The Koran contains prohibitions against drinking, and Muslims are forbidden to sell or serve alcoholic beverages. Hindus take a negative view of the use of alcohol; this is reflected in the constitution of India, which requires every state to work toward the prohibition of alcohol except for medicinal purposes. Abstinence from alcohol has also been the goal of temperance movements in Europe and the United States. Some Christian religious groups strongly urge abstinence, including the Christian Scientists, Mormons,

Seventh-Day Adventists, Pentecostalists, and some Baptists and Methodists. In some ambivalent cultures, such as the United States and Ireland, the values of those who believe in abstinence conflict with the values of those who regard moderate drinking as a way of being hospitable and sociable. Temperance movements in Europe and North America have long had a goal of total abstinence from alcohol and have had a significant impact on alcohol policy in some countries. Some psychologists believe that ambivalence towards the use of alcohol in a culture makes it harder for some people to develop a stable attitude towards drinking. Different cultures also have distinct patterns of drinking which can impact upon both the level and nature of alcohol related problems. This include "binge" drinking, where relatively large quantities of alcohol are consumed at a single drinking session, interspersed with periods of relative abstinence; alcohol consumption associated with the taking of food, often in a family or social gathering; regular drinking throughout the day, during which large quantities may be consumed but at a pace which does not produce serious or obvious intoxication.

Some cultures have a permissive attitude toward drinking, including those of Spain, Portugal, Italy, Japan, and Israel. The proportion of Jews and Italians who use alcohol is high, but the rates of drunkenness among them are lower than in Irish and Scandinavian groups. In France the heavy consumption of alcohol has been related to the fact that many people are engaged in viticulture and in the production and distribution of alcoholic beverages. Various surveys indicate that subgroups within a society or culture do not all have the same attitudes toward alcoholic beverages or the same drinking patterns. Drinking behavior differs significantly among groups of different age, sex, social class, racial status, ethnic background, occupational status, religious affiliation, and regional location. This wide range of attitudes towards and patterns of alcohol consumption has led to a plethora of laws and regulations which seek to control and/or restrict the buying and consumption of alcoholic beverages in individual countries. The social problems associated with the consumption range from the direct physiological impact upon families and the wider society. In the United States, one family in three is estimated to be affected in some way by a drinking problem. The US Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences estimates that alcohol dependence and misuse in the United States costs society from $40 to

$60 billion annually, due to lost production, health and medical care, motor vehicle accidents, violent crime, and social programmes that respond to alcohol problems. One-half of all traffic fatalities and one-third of all traffic injuries are related to the abuse of alcohol. Also, one-third of all suicides and one-third of all mental health disorders are estimated to be associated with serious alcohol abuse. Accidents and suicides associated with alcohol problems are especially prominent among teenagers. It has been estimated that there are over 3 million problem drinkers between the ages of 14 and 17 in the United States. Children of alcohol dependents may be affected by a father's or mother's alcoholism in several ways. Having a problem-drinking parent increases the risk of becoming a problem drinker oneself. This may happen because of identification with or imitation of the alcoholic parent, but also because the social and family conditions associated with alcoholism are among those believed to contribute to the development of alcohol problems. These include family conflict, divorce, job insecurity, and social stigma.

Other problems reported in children of alcoholic parents in the United States and in Europe include speech disorders, hyperactiv-ity, psychosomatic complaints, school problems, antisocial behavior, and drug use. The type of problem varies with the age and sex of the child.

While having an alcoholic parent may increase the child's risk of developing emotional or drinking problems later in life, it by no means makes becoming an alcohol dependent inevitable for the child. In fact, some surveys of large communities suggest that two-thirds of adults whose parents were very heavy drinkers drink lightly themselves and have thus turned away from their parents' drinking style. ALCOHOL - Word history Medieval Latin, fine metallic powder, especially of antimony, from Arabic al-kohl : al, the + kohl, powder of antimony.The al- in alcohol being the Arabic definite article corresponding to "the" in English. The origin of -cohol is its Arabic ancestor kuhl, a fine powder most often made from antimony and used by women to darken their eyelids; in fact, kuhl has given us the word kohl for such a preparation. Arabic chemists came to use al-kuhl to mean any fine powder produced in a number of ways, including the process of heating a substance to a gaseous state and then recool-ing it. The English word alcohol, derived through Medieval Latin from Arabic, is first recorded in 1543 in this sense. Arabic chemists also used al-kuhl to refer to other sub stances such as essences that were obtained by distillation, a sense first found for English alcohol in 1672. One of these distilled essences, known as alcohol of wine, is the constituent of fermented liquors which causes intoxication. This essence took over the term alcohol for itself, whence it has come to refer to the liquor that contains this essence as well as to a class of chemical compounds such as methanol.

Alcohol Athlete Colloquial term for rumrunner.

Alcohol Charter for Europe A charter adopted by 46 European member states of the World Health Organisation at the WHO "Health, Society and Alcohol" conference held in Paris, 1995. The text is available in the Document section of the Encyclopaedia on Substance Abuse.

Alcohol Control 1. Most commonly, regulations restricting or otherwise controlling the production and sale of alcoholic beverages, often administered by specific government agencies (alcoholic beverage control, ABC).

2. In some scholarly discussions, the totality of government intervention in the alcoholic beverage market, without regard to purpose.

3. In general public health usage concerning risk factors, may refer to prevention and treatment policies concerning alcohol in general (although alcohol policy is less ambiguous in this context).

Alcohol Free Living Center Colloquial term for a residence in which all participants are alcohol free, have a 3 month plan of recovery, and are participating in 12 Step groups Alcohol Health and Research World Journal of the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIAAA. Alcohol Test 1. Test to determine how much alcohol a person has consumed, usually by measuring alcohol content with a Breathalyser. 2. Colloquial term for purity check for cocaine - determines the type and amount of diluent used to "cut" cocaine. Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Bureau of See: Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms.

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test See: AUDIT. Alcohol addiction See Addiction. Alcohol amblyopia Damage to the optic nerve resluting in blurred vision, vcaused by excessive drinking.

Alcohol and Health A series of reports to the U.S. Congress issued periodically by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

Alcohol antagonist See: Alcohol-reaction-causing drugs and Alcohol-sensitising drug.

Alcohol challenge A test of the effectiveness of therapeutic dosaafe with a alcohol-reaction-causing substance such as disulfiram. By administrating a small amount of alcohol beverage to the patient a mild reaction demonstrates the dangers of attempting to drink while taking the prescribes substance. Alcohol concentration Amount of alcohol in a solution. Expressed in terms of percentage volume alcohol in volume solutions. Alcohol consumption The quantity of alcohol consumed in a specific area or by a specific population during a specified period of time.

Alcohol content Percentage of alcohole in a solution such as a beverage. Alcohol counsellor See: Alcoholism coun-cellor.

Alcohol dehydrogenaze Enzyme in the body which breaks down alcohol. The enzyme of the oxidoreductase class catalyzes the reversible oxidation of primary or secondary alcohols. See: Dehydrogenases. Alcohol dementia Relativly rare and mild mental disturbance caused by alcohol which seldom occurs among persons under 40. This can be due to that the young brain is more res-tistent to alcohol or becaus it takes several years of excesive drinking for the dementia to develop. Repeated injuries of the head due to accidents, fights, bad nutrition and lack of vitamines, as well as other alcohol-damaged body parts or genetical factors kan also play a role. The dementia is developed gradualy and is mainly characterized by decreased ability to thionk abstractly and solve problems. The memory is affected but not as severly as in Korsakoffs syndrome. In patiens with alcohol dementia unspecific injuries are seen in data-tomography or magnetic camera. In a longer period of alcohol-abstinence these injuries can partly can be restored.

Alcohol dependence See Dependence syndrome.

Alcohol deterrent An alcohol-reaction-causing substance, such as disulfiram. Alcohol flush See: Alcohol flush reaction. Alcohol flush reaction Flushing of the face, neck, and shoulders after the ingestion of alcohol, often accompanied by nausea, dizziness, and palpitations. The alcohol flush reaction is seen in approximately 50% of some Asian groups and is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme aldehyde dehydro-genase which catalyses the breakdown of ac-etaldehyde, The reaction also occurs when alcohol is taken by people receiving treatment with alcohol-sensitising drugs such as disul-firam (Antabuse), which inhibit aldehyde de-hydrogenase.

Alcohol free beer Colloquial term for beer with 0.0% alcohol content, psychologically drinking it is dangerous for recovering persons.

Alcohol hallucinosis See: Hallucinosis, Psychotic disorder, alcohol- or druginduced. Alcohol heart muscle disease See: Alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

Alcohol ingestion Alcohol drinking. A term sometimes preferred over drinking to distinguish gross or alcoholismic alcohol fo-sumption fron the normal behaviour of drinking.

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