Adicto a drogas narcoticas Addicted to narcotics

Adifuge Amfetamine. Adike Areca catechu.

Adinazolam C19H18ClN5, Triazolobenzodi-azepine with antidepressant and anxiolytic properties.

See: Benzodiazepines.

Adipan 1. Amfepramone hydrochloride.

2. Amfetamine sulfate. 3. Tradename for

Dexamfetamine tartrate and Metamfetamine tartrate.

Adiparthrol 1. Amfetamine sulfate. 2. Dexamfetamine sulfate; Etilamfetamine.

Adiparthrol-Ethyl Etilamfetamine. Adipat Amfepramone hydrochloride. Adipex 1. Metamfetamine hydrochloride. 2. Metamfetamine tartrate; Phentermine hy-drochloride.

Adipex neu Phentermine resinate. Adipex-8 CT Phentermine hydrochloride. Adipex-P Phentermine hydrochloride. Adipo Il Phendimetrazine bitartrate. Adiposan Amfepramone hydrochloride. Adiposetten Cathine. Adiposid Phenmetrazine. Adiposon Amfepramone hydrochloride. Adipsia Absence of thirst. Adipyn Amfepramone hydrochloride. Adistop C Cathine hydrochloride. Adistop-F Cathine hydrochloride. Adler 1. German colloquial term for a 100-mark bill. 2. German colloquial term for LSD on paper.

Administration Method of route or mode of administration, i.e. the way in which a substance is introduced into the body, such as oral ingestion, intravenous (IV), subcutaneous, or intramuscular injection, inhalation, smoking, or absorption through skin or mucosal surfaces, such as the gums, rectum, or genitalia. See also: IDU, IVDU.

Admiral of the Blue Colloquial term for a tavern keeper.

Admiral of the Narrow Seas Naval term for a drunken sailor who vomits into lap of another sailor.

Admiral of the Red Colloquial term for a drunkard.

Admiral, Tap the Colloquial term for drinking surreptitiously.

Admixture 1. The act of mixing or mingling. 2. The state of being mingled or mixed. 3. Something that is produced by mixing; a mixture. 4. Something added in mixing. See also: Mixture. ADMS Acronym for Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Services. ADN Acronym for Adicto a Drogas Narcoticas. Addicted to narcotics. Adnephrin Phenobarbital. ADNET Acronym for AntiDrugNetwork. Adolan Methadone . Adolens Pethidine hydrochloride. Adolescence The period of life beginning with the appearance of secondary sex characteristics and terminating with the cessation of somatic growth, roughly from 11 to 19 years of age.

Latin adolescentia

Adolinfant Methaqualone.

Adolor Barbital.

Adonal Phenobarbital.

ADONIS Acronym for Alcohol, Drugs en

Overige middelen Nederlands Informatie Sys-teem, text-database on substance abuse in the Netherlands operated by NIAD. Adorm CyclobarbitaI calcium. Adormidera 1. Colloquial term for opium poppy. 2. Colloquial term for heroin. ADPA Acronym for Alcohol and Drug Problems Association of North America, formerly the North American Association of Alcoholism Programmes (NAAAP). ADPANA Acronym for Alcohol and Drug Problems Association of North America, formerly the North American Association of Alcoholism Programmes (NAAAP). Adphen Phendimetrazine bitartrate. Adphen forte Phendimetrazine bitartrate. Adren(o) From Latin ad near + ren kidney, a combining form denoting relationship to the adrenal gland.

Adrenal gland Adrenal Gland, also called Suprarenal gland. Either of two small and virtually identical triangular endocrine glands, one at the upper end of each kidney. Vital organ in humans.

The medulla of the adrenal gland, composed of chromaffin, is made up of columnar cells that secrete the hormone epinephrine also called adrenaline, in response to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system at times of stress. The medulla also secretes the hormone norepinephrine, which plays a role in maintaining normal blood circulation. These hormones belong to the class of chemicals called cathecholamines, which are darkened when oxidised by potassium dichromate. The medulla is frequently referred to as chromaffin tissue.

Unlike the cortex, the medulla can be removed without endangering the life of an individual. The adrenal outer layer, cortex, secretes about 30 steroid hormones, but only a few are secreted in significant amounts. In the adult human the cortex comprises about 90 percent of the gland. The cortex is made up of three structurally different concentric zones- From the outermost inward they are zona glomeru-losa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. The zona glomerulosa is principally responsible for the secretion of aldesterone, one of the most important hormones. This steroid hormone is known as a minneralocorticoid - a regulator of sodium and potassium metabolism. The inner two zones - fasciculata and re-ticularis - operate almost as a physiological unit and are controlled by ACTH (adrenocor-ticotropic hormone), a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland (q.v.). Their principal function is the secretion of cortisol and of some adrenal androgens, or male hormones, which have a minor influence on the reproductive system. Cortisol has two primary roles: (1) gluconeogenesis - i. e, the breakdown of protein to form glucose; and (2) an anti-inflammatory action. Thus cortisol can reduce disease manifestations without having any direct effect on the causative agent. Modified glucocorticoids, now produced synthetically, are superior to naturally secreted steroids for treatment of Addison's disease and other disorders.

Adrenalin Adrenaline. Adrenaline and noradrenaline Also called epinephrine and norephrine, separate, active principles secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands (q.v.). They are also liberated at the ends of sympathetic nerve fibres where they serve as chemical mediators for conveying the nerve impulses to effector organs. Chemically, the two compounds differ only slightly; and they exert similar pharmacological actions, which resemble the effects of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. They are, therefore, classified as sym-pathomimetic agents The active secretion of the adrenal medulla contains approximately 80 percent adrenaline and 20 percent noradrena-line; but this proportion is reversed in the symphatetic nerves, which contain predominantly noradrenaline.

The purified, active compounds are used clinically and are obtained from the adrenal glands of domesticated animals or prepared synthetically. The administration of adrenaline results in an increase in blood pressure by increasing the rate and force of contraction of the heart and by constricting the peripheral blood vessels. It also dilates the bronchioles and in this way is an aid to respiration. Adrenaline exerts a metabolic effect manifested by a rise in blood glucose. Noradrenaline elicits similar responses but its metabolic effects and actions on the heart are much less than those of adrenaline. The rise in blood pressure after the administration of noradrenaline is due to its powerful vasoconstrictor action. Adrenaline is used in combination with local anaesthetics because its vasco-constriction properties delay the absorption of the local anaesthetics, and in this way prolongs their activity and reduces their toxicity. It is useful in acute allergic disorders, such as drug reactions, hives, and hay fever. Occasionally it is applied as a local vasoconstrictor in the control of superficial haemorrhage from the skin and mucous membranes and to relieve the nasal congestion associated with certain allergic conditions. Noradrenaline is administered by intravenous infusion to combat the acute fall in blood pressure associated with certain types of shock. Large doses of these compounds may result in such serious consequences as cerebral haemorrhage and cardiac abnormalities. Adrenergic 1. Activated by, characteristic of, or secreting epinephrine or related substances, particularly referring to the sympathetic nerve fibers that liberate norepinephrine at a synapse when a nerve impulse passes. 2. An agent that produces such an effect. Adrenergic drug Also called sympaticomi-metic drug, any member of a class of drugs affecting the nervous system. Adrenergic drugs stimulate the release of adrenaline or noradrenaline neurotransmitters, or compounds that diffuse from the end of a stimulated nerve cell across a space called the syn-aptic cleft to a neighbouring nerve cell, which is thus stimulated. Adrenergic drugs may inhibit the metabolism of these neurotransmit-ters or may mimic their effects. Adrenergics affect cardiac muscles and the muscles involved in blood-vessel elasticity and may exacerbate heart disease or urinary tract obstruction They are used to treat systemic trauma including bronchial asthma, shock, and cardiac arrest; to effect nasal de-congestion and appetite suppression; and to relieve allergic disorders. They increase both glandular secretions and the heart rate, and prolong the action of local anaesthetics. Adrenergic blocking drugs (e.g. benzamine or propanolol) inhibit certain responses of sympathetic nerves to adrenaline or noradrenaline any of various drugs that interfere with the functioning of the sympathetic nervous system by affecting the release or action of norepi-nephrine and epinephrine. The former are hormones, secreted by the adrenal gland, that constrict blood vessels (thus increasing blood pressure) and accelerate the rate and force of contractions of the heart. Adrenergic drugs that stimulate the release or activity of norepinephrine or that mimic its effects are termed sympathomimetic agents. Among the sympathomimetic drugs are the amfetamine and ephedrine. Because these drugs raise the blood pressure and increase the heart rate, they are useful in treating systemic trauma, including bronchial asthma, shock, and cardiac arrest. They are also used to effect nasal decongestion and appetite suppression and to relieve allergic disorders. Drugs that block or inhibit the release or activity of norepinephrine are known as adrenergic blocking agents. These drugs dilate blood vessels (thus lowering blood pressure) and slow the heart rate. They are very useful in treating hypertension, angina, and heart dysrhythmias. Among the adrenergic blocking agents are phenoxybenzamine, propranolol, and prazosin. Adrenic Pertaining to the adrenal glands.

Adrenin Adrenaline. Adrenine Adrenaline. Adrenitis Adrenaline. Adrenoceptive Pertaining to the sites on effector organs that are acted upon by adrener-gic transmitters.

Adrenoceptor Adrenergic receptor. Adrenochrome 1. A red (pink adrenaline) derivate of adrenaline that produces hallucinogenic effects. Adrenochrome is an oxidation product of epinephrine which possesses hemostatic properties due to its effect on capillary permeability, and has been used as an experimental psychomimetic. It is used in the form of its stable derivative carbazochrome salicylate. 2. Colloquial term for Barbiturates. Adrenocortical Pertaining to or arising from the cortex of the adrenal gland. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also called corticotropin, a polypeptide hormone formed in the pituitary gland that regulates the activity of the outer region (cortex) of the adrenal glands. In mammals the action of ACTH is limited to those areas of the adrenal cortex in which the glucocorticoid hormones-cortisol and corticosterone (see corticoid)-are formed. The secretion of ACTH by the pituitary is itself regulated by another polypeptide, a so-called corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), that is discharged from the hypothalamus in response to impulses transmitted by the nervous system.

Adrenokinetic Stimulating the adrenal gland.

Adrip Colloquial term for being drunk. Adrizine Dexamfetamine sulfate. Adulbran Diazepam.

Adult child Colloquial term for an adult, during whose childhood alcoholism was prevalent in the family (does not indicate immaturity in spite of the nomenclature). Adult child of an alcoholic See: Child of an alcoholic.

Adulteration The act of making any commodity impure by admixture of other or baser ingredients. This admixture may corrupt the nature of the original to the extent of destroying its identity, or it may merely lower the value or effectiveness of the finished product. Adulteration of foods and beverages has been performed with the same aim - increasing profits for the manufacturer or merchant -since early times, when laws in ancient Greece and Rome addressed the colouring and flavouring of wine. England has had laws against adulteration of beer, bread, and other commodities since the 13 th century, culminating in the Adulteration of Food or Drink Act of 1872 with its stiff penalties - six months at hard labour for a second offence. The law was modernised with the 1955 Food and Drug Act. In the US numerous state and federal bills were introduced in the 1890s, finally resulting in the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906. This act was ineffective because of its light penalties, and in 1938 it was superseded by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, which outlaws foods and drugs dangerous to health, sold in interstate commerce. The 1938 law has been amended to cover food colourings and additives and supplemented by similar state legislation aimed at foods and drugs that do not come within the scope of interstate commerce. Adulteration not only functions to defraud consumers but it can also pose a health threat.

In the case of illegal drugs, adulteration is generally in the form of inert or harmless compounds added to the illicit substance. These serve to reduce the purity and to increase profits. The relative purity of drugs such as heroin or amfetamine which are sold on the illicit market varies considerably between and within countries. Sometimes deadly poisons, such as sodium cyanide, have been sold as or mixed with the drugs. On other occasions, when drugs such as heroin have been sold to misusers in a more pure form than normally available, this has also led to overdoses and other serious health problems. Adumbran Oxazepam. Adumbran Forte Oxazepam. Adumran Oxazepam.

Adverse drug reaction Harmful, unintended or unwanted consequences of taking a drug. In the general medical and pharmacological fields, denotes a toxic physical or (less commonly) psychological reaction to a therapeutic agent. The reaction may be predictable, or allergic or idiosyncratic (unpredictable). In the context of substance use, the term includes unpleasant psychological or physical reactions to drug taking. Includes anxiety, paranoia, sense of loss of control, dysphoria. See also: Bad trip.

Advil Acetylsalicylacid.

Advocaat Liqueur made with egg, brandy and spices.

Adyne PB Phenobarbital.

Adypsia Absence of thirst.

Adystonin Phenobarbital.

AEDS Acronym for Alcohol Epidemiologic

Data System.

Aeine Phenobarbital.

Aenid Epic poem of the Roman poet Virgil in which opium is mentioned as a soporific and a drug that induces drowsiness.

Aephenal Phenobarbital.

Aerosol 1. A colloid system in which the continuous phase (dispersion medium) is a gas, e.g., fog. 2. A bactericidal solution which can be finely atomized for the purpose of sterilizing the air of a room. 3. A solution of a drug which can be atomized into a fine mist for inhalation therapy.

Aerosols Aerosols were formerly defined as colloidal systems consisting of very finely subdivided liquid or solid particles dispersed in a gas. Today, the term aerosol, in general usage, has become synonymous with a pressurized package. For pharmaceutical purposes aerosols may be divided into two types. Space sprays disperse the medicament as a finely divided spray with particles not exceeding 50 microns (0.05 millimetre, or 0.002 inch) in diameter. Surface-coating aerosols produce a coarse or wet spray and are used to coat surfaces with a residual film. Propellants used in aerosols are of two main types: liquefied gases and compressed gases. The former consist of easily liquefiable gases such as halogenated hydrocarbons. The drug is dissolved in the liquefied gas or in a mixture of the gas and a suitable solvent. When these are sealed into the container, the system separates into a liquid and a vapour phase and soon reaches an equilibrium. The vapour pressure pushes the liquid phase up the standpipe and against the valve. When the valve is opened by pressing down, the liquid phase is expelled into air at atmospheric pressure and immediately vaporizes, leaving an aerosol of the drug. The pressure inside the container is maintained at a constant value as more liquid changes into vapour. When compressed gases are used as the propellant, the pressure falls steadily as the contents of the aerosol are used, and for this reason liquefied gases are used whenever possible. Pharmaceutical aerosols include solutions, suspensions, emulsions, powders, and semisolid preparations. The products include inhalation aerosols, spray-on bandages, creams, and ointments. The application of these latter to wounds and burns is obviously advantageous, as rubbing is eliminated, and the fine film produced promotes rapid absorption. Inhalation aerosols often include a metering valve, so that measured quantities of drug may be administered; these are rapidly replacing old hand sprays.

Sprays, solutions of drugs in aqueous or oily solutions, are applied by means of an atomizer to the mucous membranes of the nose or throat. Oily solutions are no longer considered desirable, and the ideal spray is an aqueous solution isotonic (equal in osmotic pressure) with nasal secretions and of the same pH. Aether Ether. Aethinal Barbital. Aethinamatum Ethinamate.

Aethomorphinum Ethylmorphine. Aethonitazen Etonitazene. Aethyl-amphetamin Etilamfetamine. Aethylamphetamin Etilamfetamine. Aethylbarbital Barbital. Aethylium-N-methyl-4-phenylpiperidin-4-carbonicum Pethidine. Aethyliumcarboxylat-1 -methyl-4-phenylpiperidin Pethidine. Aethylmethylthiambuten, -um Ethyl-methylthiambutene.

Aethylmorphin, -e, -i, -um Ethylmorphine. Aethylmorphinum hydrochloricum Eth-ylmorphine hydrochloride. Aethylomorphinum Ethylmorphine. Aethyltheophyllin-amphetamin Fenetyl-line.

Aethylum-dl-trans-2-dimethyl-ammonium-1-phenylcyclohex-3-en-carbonicum Tilidine. Aetylmorfin Ethylmorphine. Afagil Phenmetrazine hydrochloride. Afatin Dexamfetamine sulfate or Dexamfeta-mine tartrate.

Afegao Portuguese term for marijuana. Aferina Phenobarbital. Affe 1. German colloquial term for withdrawal symptoms. 2. German colloquial term for LSD on paper.

Affective disorder, residual, alcohol- or drug-related Alcohol- or drug-induced changes which persist beyond the period when a direct effect of alcohol or drugs might reasonably be assumed to be operating. Mental disorder characterized by dramatic changes in, or extremes of, mood. Affective disorders may include manic (elevated, expansive, or irritable mood with hyperactivity, pressured speech, and inflated self-esteem) or depressive (dejected mood with disinterest in life, sleep disturbance, agitation and feelings of worth-lessness or guilt) episodes and often combinations of the two. Persons with an affective disorder may or may not have psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, or other loss of contact with reality. In manic-depressive disorders, periods of mania and depression may alternate with abrupt onsets and recoveries. Depression is the more common symptom, and many patients never develop a genuine manic phase, although they may experience a brief period of over-optimism and mild euphoria while recovering from a depression. The most extreme manifestation of mania is violence against others, while that of depression is suicide. Statistical studies have suggested hereditary predisposition to the disorder, which commonly appears for the first time in young adults. Manic-depressive disorders were described in antiquity by the 2nd-

century Aretaeus of Cappadocia and in modern times by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraeplin. The current term is derived from folie maniaco-melancholique, which was introduced in the 17th century. See also: Psychotic disorder, residual and late onset, alcohol- or drug-induced.

Affective education Education which focuses on emotional content and reactions in contrast to cognitive content. In drug education, for instance, it covers how to achieve feelings of excitement without drugs and on psychodrama-like role-play to identify ways of dealing with situations such as being offered drugs or when a friend wants to drive whilst drunk etc. In general drug education with affective elements appear to have better results than education where the goals are to promote drug-negative attitudes. Affectomotor Elevated mood and hyperac-tivity as in mania, typical effect of stimulants as amfetamine and cocaine. Affen German colloquial term for satisfying one's addiction.

Affimichi Pakistianian colloquial term for opium addict.

Afflicted Colloquial term for being drunk. Afga Finnish Colloquial term for hashish from Afghanistan.

Afgan Swedish Colloquial term for hashish from Afghanistan.

Afghan Hashish from Afghanistan, usually dark brown to black.

Afghane German colloquial term for hashish from Afghanistan.

Afghani 1. Marijuana or hashish from Afghanistan. 2. Hashish oil. Afgyun Colloquial term for opium. Afihm Opium. Afilan Mazindol. Afim Opium. Afina Opium.

Afinal Phenobarbital calcium. Afioni Colloquial term for opium. Afiun Opium. Afiyun Opium. Afioni Opium. Afjon Opium.

Afkick Dutch colloquial term for feeling withdrawal symptoms.

Afkicken Dutch colloquial term for trying to stop using drugs.

AFLC Acronym for Alcohol Free Living Center, a residence in which all participants are alcohol free, have a 3 month plan of recovery, and are participating in 12 Step groups. Afloat Colloquial term for being drunk. Afluol Methadone. AFP Alphafetoprotein. African Colloquial term for African hashish.

African black Colloquial term for African marijuana i blackish color. African bush Colloquial term for marijuana. African woodbine Colloquial term for a marijuana cigarette.

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