Abu Ali alHusayn ibn Abdallah ibn Sina See Avicenna

Abua Tabernanthe iboga. containing the stimulant ibogaine.

Abulemin Amfepramone hydrochloride.

Abulruh Mandrake.

Aburi Nigerian term for marijuana.

Abuse (drug, alcohol, chemical, substance, or psychoactive substance)

A group of terms in wide use but of varying meaning. In DSM-IIIR, "psychoactive substance abuse is defined as "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused or exacerbated by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous". It is a residual category, with dependence taking precedence when applicable. The term "abuse" is sometimes used disapprovingly to refer to any use at all, particularly of illicit drugs. Because of its ambiguity, the term is not used in ICD-10 (except in the case of non-dependence-producing substances, see below); harmful use and hazardous use are the equivalent terms in WHO usage, although they usually relate only to effects on health and not to social consequences. The Office of Substance Abuse Prevention in the USA has also discouraged employment of the word "abuse", although terms such as "substance abuse" remain in wide use in North America and in many other countries to refer generally to problems of psychoactive substance use. In other contexts, abuse has referred to non-medical or unsanctioned patterns of use, irrespective of consequences. Thus the definition published in 1969 by the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence was "persistent or medical practice" See: Misuse, drug or alcohol. Abuse liability The propensity of a particular psychoactive substance to be susceptible to abuse, defined in terms of the relative probability that use of the substance will result in social, psychological, or physical problems for an individual or for society. Under international drug control treaties . WHO is responsible for determining the abuse liability and dependence potential, as distinct from therapeutic usefulness, of controlled substances. See also: Abuse; Harmful use. Abuse of non-dependence-producing substances Defined in ICD-10 (F55) as repeated and inappropriate use of a substance which, though the substance has no dependence potential, is accompanied by harmful physical or psychological effects, or involves unnecessary contact with health professionals (or both). This category might more appropriately be termed "misuse of non psychoactive substances" (compare misuse, drug or alcohol). In ICD-10, this diagnosis is included within the section "Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors" (F50-F59). A wide variety of prescription drugs, proprietary (over-the-counter) drugs, and herbal and folk remedies may be involved. The particularly important groups are:

1. Psychotropic drugs that do not produce dependence, such as antidepressants and neuroleptics; 2. Laxatives (misuse of which is termed the "laxative habit"); 3. Analgesics which may be purchased without medical prescription, such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and paracetamol (acetaminophen); 4. Steroids and other hormones; 5. Vitamins; and 6. Antacids.

These substances do not typically have pleasurable psychic effects, yet attempts to discourage or forbid their use are met with resistance. Despite the patient's strong motivation to take the substance, neither the dependence syndrome nor the withdrawal syndrome develops. These substances do not have dependence potential in the sense of intrinsic pharmacological effects, but are capable of inducing psychological dependence.

Abuse potential Likelihood of a drug being abused.

Abusive drinker Alcohol abuser, pejorative term implying alcohol abuse. Abusus Latin for abuse, sometimes used in older medical terminology as abusus alco-holicus or abusus narcoticus. The term was used to describe a limited misuse as compared to the more chronic alcoholismus and narcomania.

Abusus alcoholicus Latin, older diagnostic term for an alcoholic habit not yet developed to full alcoholism (alcoholismus). Abusus narcoticus Latin, older diagnostic term for a drug habit not yet as severe as narcomania.

Abuta Abuta grandiflora, Ayahuasca admixture plant.

ABV Acronym for Alcohol By Volume. ABW Acronym for Alcohol By Weight. Abyssinian tea From Abyssinian, Ethiopian. Tea made from the leaves of khat. AC Acronym for Alcoholics for Christ, a 12 Step group similar to AA, but recognizing Jesus Christ as the "higher Power". ACA See: Child of an alcoholic. Acacia niopo See: Niopo. Academy of TV Arts & Sciences antidrug program American organisation that has a program for educating members about the media glamourization and tolerance of illicit drug use. Acamol Acetaminophen. Acamprosate A substance that has been shown to decrease voluntary alcohol intake in rats and humans. Acamprosate is an agonist of GABA. It has been studied primarily in France. A large multicentre study in 1991 found that the group of patients receiving acamprosate compared favourably with the placebo-group, when severely dependent per sons were evaluated for relapse 3 months after abstinence was initiated. ACAP Acronym for American Council on Alcohol Problems.

Acapulco Gold Colloquial term for especially potent, high-quality, golden brown Mexican marijuana originally grown near the town Acapulco.

Acapulco Gold papers Cigarette papers made from cannabis fiber. Acapulco Red Colloquial term for reddish brown Mexican marijuana originally grown near the town Acapulco. Acarophobia Irrational fear of mites or of other minute animate (insects, worms) or inanimate (pins, needles) objects, sometimes accompanied by fear of parasites crawling beneath the skin.

A special form of acarophobia can occur in cocaine abuse see Magnans syndrome. Accelerase PB Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control: Phenobarbital . Accelerator Colloquial term for amfeta-mines.

Accidentia! overdose Overdose without suicidal aim.

See: Overdose .

Accounts, Casting up his Colloquial term for being drunk.

Accrocher French colloquial term for being dependent upon the use of one or more drugs.

Accumulation To gather or pile up. Drugs and its metabolites can be accumulated in the body after repeted intake.

Latin accumulare to pile up (from cumulus, heap).

Ace 1. Old colloquial term for a marijuana-cigar or cigarette. 2. Colloquial term for PCP. Aced Colloquial term for being drunk. Acedicon Thebacon hydrochloride. Acedicone Thebacon hyrochloride. Acedikon Thebacon hydrochloride. Aceite Colloquial term for LSD. Aceituna Colloquial term for user of LSD. Acelerado 1. Mexican colloquial term for an inhalant user. 2. Argentinean colloquial term for being turned on, excited by a drug. Acelerador 1. Mexican colloquial term for amfetamines. 2. Colloquial term for an inhalant. 3. Colloquial term for LSD. Acelerante Colloquial term for amfetamines. Acelide Colloquial term for LSD. Acemethadone Acetylmethadol. See: LAAM.

Aceta-tal Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control: Phenobarbital . Acetabar Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control: Phenobarbital. Acetabarb Phenobarbital. Acetaldehyde CH3CHO, also called acetic aldehyde ethanol and ethylaldehyde, is an organic compound belonging to the aldehyde group. A colourless flammable liquid with a pungent, fruity odour, it is important as an intermediate in the manufacture of many chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and plastics, including acetic acid, butyl alcohol, chloral, and pyri-dine and is used in the manufacture of perfumes and flavours. Acetaldehyde is widely used as a starting material for the synthesis of many organic compounds. Acetaldehyde may cause irritation of mucous membranes, lacrimation, photophobia, conjunctivitis, corneal injury, rhinitis, anosmia, bronchitis, pneumonia, pleurisy, headache, and unconsciousness.

Acetaldehyde is also the principal product when ethanol is broken down. It is formed in the liver by oxidation of ethanol, the reaction being catalysed principally by alcohol dehy-drogenase. It is itself oxidised to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde is a toxic substance, implicated in the alcohol flush reaction and in certain physical sequelae of alcohol consumption.

See also: Alcohol-sensitising drug; Disulfiram. Acetaldehydedehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+). Acetalgan Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under international control: Phenobarbital . Acetalgin Acetaminophen. Acetaminophen C8H9NO2, A crystalline compound, , used in chemical synthesis and in medicine to relieve minor pain, such as headaches and structural muscle aches, and to reduce fever. Best known by the trade name Tylenol. It does not relieve intense pain or the pain caused by spasms of smooth muscles (such as the muscles lining the digestive or urinary tracts). Like the other common analgesic drugs, aspirin and ibuprofen, acetaminophen works by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. However, it does not have the anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic properties of the other two analgesics, neither does it irritate the stomach lining, as aspirin tends to do for some users. It is often used as a substitute for aspirin. Aceta-minophen's fever-reducing, or antipyretic, properties result from its chemical similarity to the antipyretic drug phenacetin, which is a more toxic chemical. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage.

Acetaminophen Butalbital Butalbital. Acetarex Drug containing more than one ac tive substance whereof one under international control: Phenobarbital . Acetate A salt or an ester of acetic acid. Breakdown product of acetaldehyde which can be used as enegry by the body. Acetate de methadyl Acetylmethadol. See: LAAM.

Acetedol Amfetamine sulfate. Acetedron Amfetamine. Acethydrocodone Thebacon. Acetic acid Chemical formed by bacteria causing wine to turn to vinegar. Acetic acid, [[4,5-epoxy-3-methoxy-a7-methylmorphinan-6-ylidene)amino]oxy]-,(5a)- CH3COOH. Codoxime. A congener, a colorless corrosive liquid with pungent smell. The comcentration in vinegar is usually between 3 an 6%. Acetic aldehyde ethanal See: Acetalde-hyde.

Acetification The process by which acetic acid or vinegar i formed. Often referring to the effect of the exposure of mild alcoholic beverages to air, whereby acetic organisems enter and turn the alcohol to acetic acid. Acetil-alfa-metilfentanilo Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl.

Acetilcodena Acetyldihydrocodeine. Acetildemetilodihidrotebaina Thebacon. Acetildihidrocodeinona Thebacon. Acetildihydrocodei'na Acetyldihydroco-deine.

Acetildiidrocodeina Acetyldihydrocodeine. Acetilmetadol Acetylmethadole. Acetilmetadone Acetylmethadol. See: LAAM.

Acetobacter Bacteria which changes wine into vinegar. Acetomorfin Heroin. Acetomorfine Heroin. Acetomorphine Heroin. Acetone CH3COCH3, Dimethyl ketone. A colorless, volatile, extremely flammable liquid ketone, widely used as an organic solvent. Acetone has a pleasant ethereal odor it is a commonly used solvent and one of the ketone bodies produced in ketoacidosis. In pharmacy, it is used as a solvent and, in concentrations above 80 per cent, as an antiseptic; the official preparation contains at least 99 per cent of acetone calculated in an adhy-drous basis.

Acetone is necessary to produce cocaine from coca leaves. It is also used in extracting morphine from opium. Acetone is an important precursor in the illegal production of drugs and its export and import is therefore monitored to combat illegal drug laboratories. Acetonova Drug containing more than one active substance whereof one under interna tional control: Secobarbital sodium . Acetophenazine C23H29N3O2S, antipsychotic patented 1961.

Acetophenetidin Phenacetin, white crystalline compound, an aniline derivative that is used as a mild analgesic. This drug, which has antipyretic (fever-reducing) as well as analgesic (pain-reducing) effects, may be used alone or in combination with aspirin and either caffeine or codeine; such combinations are called APC mixtures. Because of the possible kidney damage that may be caused by high doses and prolonged use of acetophenetidin, aspirin is sometimes used as a substitute. Acetorfina Acetorphine. Acetorphin Acetorphine. Acetorphine C27H35NO5. Derivate of the-baine under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I and IV. Molecular weight 453. 6. Percentage of anhydrous base: 100.

Acetorphine hydrochloride C27H35NO5 HCl. Derivate of thebaine under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I and IV. Molecular weight 490.1. Percentage of anhydrous base: 92.6 Acetorphinum Acetorphine. Acetum 1. Vinegar. 2. An acetic acid solution of a drug. Latin acetum.

Acetyl coenzyme A CoAS-COCH3, condensation product of coenzyme A and Acetic acid.

Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl C22H28N2O.

Synthetic substance under international control according to the UN Single Convention 1961 and its amendments, Schedule I and IV. Molecular weight: 336.0. Percentage of anhydrous base: 100.

Acetylation To bring an acetyl group into an organic molecule.

Acetylcholine A reversible acetic acid esterer of choline; it is a cholinergic agonist and serves as a neurotransmitter at the myoneural junctions of striated muscles, at autonomic effector cells innervated by parasympathetic nerves, at the reganglionic synapses of the the sympathetic and parasympatetic nervous systems, and at various sites in the central nervous system. AChE has few therapeutic applications owing to its diffuse action and rapid hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), synhetic derivatives are used for more specific, prolonged action. AchE used as a vasodilator in pharmacoangiography, administered by intra-arterial infusion. Acetylcodon, -e Acetyldihydrocodeine hy-drochloride.

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