1. For an overview see J. Orford, "Addiction as Excessive Appetite," Addiction 96 (2001): 15-31. For example, cocaine was long considered non-addictive because usage did not produce physical symptoms of addiction. In the 1980s this traditional understanding was challenged by research reports such as F.H. Gawin and H.D. Kleber, "Abstinence Symptomatology and Psychiatric Diagnosis in Cocaine Abusers: Clinical Observations," Archives of General Psychiatry 43 (1986): 107-13; H.D. Kleber and F.H. Gawin, "In Reply," Archives of General Psychiatry 44 (1987): 298; H.D. Kleber, "Epidemic Cocaine Abuse: America's Present, Britain's Future?" British Journal of Addiction 83 (1988): 1364. Those challenges met skepticism or even outright rejection from A.E. Skodol, "Diagnostic Issues in Cocaine Abuse," in H.I. Spitz and J.S. Rosecan, eds., Cocaine Abuse: New Directions in Treatment and Research (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1987), 120; D.W. Teller and P. Devenyi, "Bromocriptine in Cocaine Withdrawal—Does It Work?" International Journal of the Addictions 23 (1988): 1197-1205; A.S.V. Burgen and J.F. Mitchell, Gaddum's Pharmacology, 9th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 76; J.E.F. Reynolds. Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 28th ed. (London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1982), 914; J.M. Arena, ed., Poisoning: Toxicology, Symptoms, Treat ments, 5th ed. (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1986), 557; Drug Facts and Comparisons, 1990 ed. (St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons, 1989), 2078; A. Goth, Medical Pharmacology: Principles and Conduct, 11th ed. (St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company, 1984), 350; B.K. Colasanti, "Contemporary Drug Abuse," in C.R. Craig and R.E. Stitzel, eds., Modern Pharmacology, 2d ed. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1986), 620; F.J. Goldstein and G.V. Rossi, "Pharmacological Aspects of Drug Abuse," in A.R. Gennaro, ed., Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed. (Easton, PA: Mack Publishing, 1985), 1351;

G.K. McEvoy, ed., American Hospital Formulary Drug Service Information (Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, 1989), 1508; Sidney Kaye, Handbook of Emergency Toxicology: A Guide for the Identification, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Poisoning, 5th ed. (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1988), 272; R.E. Gosselin, R.P. Smith, and

H.C. Hodge, Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, 5th ed. (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984), III-117.

2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed., rev. (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1987), 166-68.

4. H.K. Armenian, M.A. Chamieh, and A. Baraka, "Influence of Wartime Stress and Psychosocial Factors in Lebanon on Analgesic Requirements for Postoperative Pain," Social Science and Medicine 15E (February 1981): 63-66.

5. J. Vila, "Protection from Pentobarbital Lethality Mediated by Pavlovian Conditioning," Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 32 (1989): 365-66; R.E. Hinson and S. Siegel, "Pavlovian Inhibitory Conditioning and Tolerance to Pentobarbital-Induced Hypothermia in Rats," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 12 (1986): 363-70.

6. E.C. Dinovo et al., "Analysis of Results of Toxicological Examinations Performed by Coroners' or Medical Examiners' Laboratories in 2000 Drug-Involved Deaths in Nine Major U.S. Cities," Clinical Chemistry 22 (1976): 847-50.

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