Notes

1. W.P. Czerwinski, "Amphetamine-Related Disorders," Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society 150 (1998): 491; R. Reeves, "President's Health the Great Coverup of JFK Years," Kansas City Star, Oct. 11, 1992, K4; R. Reeves, President Kennedy: Profile of Power (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 178, 243, 648n. 146; T.C. Reeves, A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy (New York: The Free Press, 1991), 295-96; C.D. Heymann, A Woman Named Jackie (New York: Lyle Stuart, 1989), 296-319.

2. R. King, The Drug Hang-up (New York: W.W. Norton, 1972), 271, 283-85.

3. C.O. Jackson, "The Amphetamine Inhaler: A Case Study of Medical Abuse," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 26 (1971): 187-96. The author is also indebted to Jackson's article for other colorful examples of amphetamine's history.

4. R.D. Rogers et al., "Dissociable Deficits in the Decision-making Cognition of Chronic Amphetamine Abusers, Opiate Abusers, Patients with Focal Damage to Prefrontal Cortex, and Tryptophan-Depleted Normal Volunteers: Evidence for Monoam-inergic Mechanisms," Neuropsychopharmacology 20 (1999): 322-39.

5. "Adderall," "Dextrostat," and "Dexedrine," in Physicians' Desk Reference, 56th ed. (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 2002), 1513, 3231, 3237.

6. L. Milkovich and B.J. van den Berg, "Effects of Antenatal Exposure to Anorectic Drugs," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 129 (1977): 637. See also M.A. Plessinger, "Prenatal Exposure to Amphetamines: Risks and Adverse Outcomes in Pregnancy," Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 25 (1998): 119-38.

7. L. Cernerud et al., "Amphetamine Addiction during Pregnancy: 14-Year Follow-up of Growth and School Performance," Acta Paediatrica 85 (1996): 204-8; L. Billing et al., "The Influence of Environmental Factors on Behavioural Problems in 8-Year-Old Children Exposed to Amphetamine during Fetal Life," Child Abuse and Neglect 18 (1994): 3-9. See also M. Eriksson et al., "Cross-sectional Growth of Children Whose Mothers Abused Amphetamines during Pregnancy," Acta Paediatrica 83 (1994): 612-17.

8. C.M. Apovian, "The Use of Pharmacologic Agents in the Treatment of the Obese Patient," Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, pt.2, 99 (1999, Suppl.): S2-S7; W.S. Poston II et al., "Challenges in Obesity Management," Southern Medical Journal 91 (1998): 710-20.

9. S.B. Penick and J.R. Hinkle, "The Effect of Expectation on Response to Phen-metrazine," Psychosomatic Medicine 26 (1964): 369-73.

10. J. Mellar and L.E. Hollister, "Phenmetrazine: An Obsolete Problem Drug," Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32 (1982): 672.

11. K.S. Kendler et al., "Illicit Psychoactive Substance Use, Heavy Use, Abuse, and Dependence in a U.S. Population-Based Sample of Male Twins," Archives of General Psychiatry 57 (2000): 261-69.

12. J.B. Milby et al., "Initiating Abstinence in Cocaine Abusing Dually Diagnosed Homeless Persons," Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60 (2000): 55-67.

13. G.W. Hall et al., "Pathological Gambling among Cocaine-Dependent Outpatients," American Journal of Psychiatry 157 (2000): 1127-33.

14. C.S. Lopes and E.S. Coutinho, "Transtornos mentais como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de abuso/dependencia de cocaína: Estudo caso-controle" (Mental disorders as risk factors for the development of cocaine abuse/dependence: Case-control study), Revista de Saude Publica 33 (1999): 477-86 (abstract in English).

15. Hall et al., "Pathological Gambling among Cocaine-Dependent Outpatients."

16. H.A. Siegal et al., "Crack-Cocaine Users as Victims of Physical Attack," Journal of the National Medical Association 92 (2000): 76-82.

17. C.R. Schermer and D.H. Wisner, "Methamphetamine Use in Trauma Patients: A Population-Based Study," Journal of the American College of Surgeons 189 (1999): 442-49.

18. D.B. Kandel and K. Chen, "Extent of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in the United States: 1991-1993," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2 (2000): 263-74.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. M.A. Hernández-Mezquita et al., "Opinión de los directores escolares sobre la influencia de factores del medio escolar en la actitud de niños y jóvenes ante el tabaco" (Influence of school environment on student's attitudes about tobacco consumption in the opinion of the headmasters), Anales Españoles de Pediatría 52 (2000): 132-37 (abstract in English).

24. G.A. Giovino, "Epidemiology of Tobacco Use among U.S. Adolescents," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 1 (1999, Suppl. 1): S31-S40.

25. M.Y. Chong, K.W. Chan, and A.T. Cheng, "Substance Use Disorders among Adolescents in Taiwan: Prevalence, Sociodemographic Correlates and Psychiatric Comorbidity," Psychological Medicine 29 (1999): 1387-96.

26. N.A. Rigotti, J.E. Lee, and H. Wechsler, "U.S. College Students' Use of Tobacco Products: Results of a National Survey," Journal of the American Medical Association 284 (2000): 699-705.

27. C.H. Schenck and M.W. Mahowald, "Long-Term, Nightly Benzodiazepine Treatment of Injurious Parasomnias and Other Disorders of Disrupted Nocturnal Sleep in 170 Adults," American Journal of Medicine 100 (1996): 333-37.

28. D.A. Ciraulo, "Abuse Potential of Benzodiazepines," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 61 (1985): 728-41.

29. L. Walters and P. Nel, "Die Afhanklikheidspotensiaal van die Bensodiasepiene: Toepassing van die Resultate van die Behandeling van die Alkoholonttrekkingsind-room" (The addiction potential of benzodiazepines. Application of the results of treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome), South African Medical Journal 59 (1981): 115-16 (abstract in English). See also L. Walters and P. Nel, "Pharmacological Requirements of Patients during Alcohol Withdrawal," South African Medical Journal 59 (1981): 114.

30. A.H. Soderpalm and S. Hansen, "Benzodiazepines Enhance the Consumption and Palatability of Alcohol in the Rat," Psychopharmacology 137 (1998): 215-22.

31. In addition to other studies cited in this paragraph, see L. Laegreid, G. Hagberg, and A. Lundberg, "The Effect of Benzodiazepines on the Fetus and the Newborn," Neuropediatrics 23 (1992): 18-23.

32. L. Laegreid, G. Hagberg, and A. Lundberg, "Neurodevelopment in Late Infancy after Prenatal Exposure to Benzodiazepines—A Prospective Study," Neuropediatrics 23 (1992): 60-67.

33. L. Laegreid, "Clinical Observations in Children after Prenatal Benzodiazepine Exposure," Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 15 (1990): 186-88. See also G. Viggedal, "Mental Development in Late Infancy after Prenatal Exposure to Benzodiazepines—A Prospective Study," Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 34 (1993): 295-305.

34. U. Bergman et al., "Effects of Exposure to Benzodiazepine during Fetal Life," Lancet 340 (1992): 694-96. See also J.A. Kuller et al., "Pharmacologic Treatment of Psychiatric Disease in Pregnancy and Lactation: Fetal and Neonatal Effects," Obstetrics and Gynecology 87 (1996): 789-94; S.D. Silberstein, "Headaches and Women: Treatment of the Pregnant and Lactating Migraineur," Headache 33 (1993): 536.

35. P.R. McElhatton, "The Effects of Benzodiazepine Use during Pregnancy and Lactation," Reproductive Toxicology 8 (1994): 461-75.

36. L. Stika et al., "Effects of Drug Administration in Pregnancy on Children's School

Behaviour," Pharmaceutisch Weekblad: Scientific Edition 12 (1990): 252-55 (abstract in English).

37. A. Czeizel, "Lack of Evidence of Teratogenicity of Benzodiazepine Drugs in Hungary," Reproductive Toxicology 1 (1987-1988): 183-88. See also Kuller et al., "Pharma-cologic Treatment of Psychiatric Disease in Pregnancy and Lactation: Fetal and Neonatal Effects."

38. A. Ornoy et al., "Is Benzodiazepine Use during Pregnancy Really Teratogenic?"

Reproductive Toxicology 12 (1998): 511-15. See also P.R. McElhatton et al., "The Outcome of Pregnancy in 689 Women Exposed to Therapeutic Doses of Antidepressants: A Collaborative Study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services (EN-TIS)," Reproductive Toxicology 10 (1996): 285-94.

39. L. Laegreid et al., "Congenital Malformations and Maternal Consumption of Benzodiazepines: A Case-Control Study," Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 32 (1990): 432-41; P.R. McElhatton, "The Effects of Benzodiazepine Use during Pregnancy and Lactation," Reproductive Toxicology 8 (1994): 461-75; U. Bergman, "Pharmacoepi-demiological Perspectives on the Suspected Teratogenic Effects of Benzodiazepines," Bratislavske Lekarske Listy 92 (1991): 560-63 (abstract in English).

40. J.W. Olney et al., "Environmental Agents That Have the Potential to Trigger Massive Apoptotic Neurodegeneration in the Developing Brain," Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (2000, Suppl. 3): 383-88.

41. J. Porter and H. Jick, "Addiction Rare in Patients Treated with Narcotics," New England Journal of Medicine 302 (1980): 123.

42. "Nandrolone decanoate," in Therapeutic Drugs, ed. C. Dollery, 2d ed. (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1999), N29.

43. P.W. Meilman et al., "Beyond Performance Enhancement: Polypharmacy among Collegiate Users of Steroids," Journal of American College Health 44 (1995): 98-104.

44. R.H. du Rant, L.G. Escobedo, and G.W. Heath, "Anabolic-Steroid Use, Strength Training, and Multiple Drug Use among Adolescents in the United States," Pediatrics 96 (1995, pt. 1): 23-28.

45. H.H. Glaser and O.N. Massengale, "Glue-Sniffing in Children: Deliberate Inhalation of Vaporized Plastic Cements," Journal of the American Medical Association 181 (1962): 300-304.

46. P.W. Lewis and D.W. Patterson, "Acute and Chronic Effects of the Voluntary Inhalation of Certain Commercial Volatile Solvents by Juveniles," Journal of Drug Issues 4 (1974): 167.

47. R.J. Goldsmith, "Death by Freon," Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 50 (1989): 36-37.

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