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Uses. This substance is related to MDA, MDMA, amphetamine, and meth-amphetamine. Drug laws call MDEA a hallucinogen, but it has stimulant effects also. Those dual properties put it in the entactogen pharmacological group, a type of drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic qualities. Effects are similar to those from MDA and MDMA.

MDEA can create contentedness and feelings of intimacy with other persons. It may promote self-insight, gesturing, and articulate talking. Hallucinations can occur, described as less intense than those brought on by psilocybin. Volunteers had normal results in tests of numerical ability while using MDEA, indicating that people can force themselves to overcome at least some of the drug's effects if necessary. Even though users feel more relaxed after taking the substance, it has general stimulant effects—raising the pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. It also elevates the level of cortisol, a hormone that increases blood sugar.

Drawbacks. Apparently MDEA inhibits secretion of human growth hormone. The drug disrupts sleep and dreaming. Psychosis is possible. In experiments with normal volunteers a minority had mental aftereffects including nervousness and discontent.

Some researchers describe MDEA as less toxic than MDMA, but damage is still possible to kidneys, liver, brain, and heart. Persons with heart disease may be in particular danger from MDEA. Overdose symptoms include hallucinations, excessive body temperature, massive perspiration, violent conduct, muscle spasms, difficulty moving arms and legs, convulsions, distress in breathing, and passing out. Fatalities have shown blood clots throughout the body and damage to skeletal muscle. Although deaths from "normal"

doses are unlikely among healthy users, the same dose can have stronger effects on some users than on others.

In rat experiments comparing the strength of MDMA to MDEA, about twice as much MDEA is needed to induce excessive body temperature and about four times as much to cause one kind of organic brain damage. The experimenters note, however, that these findings do not extrapolate well to humans because people might take greater doses of MDEA than MDMA to get the desired psychological effects, so any net difference in harm to abusers may be nil despite difference in drug potency.

Abuse factors. Not enough scientific information to report about tolerance, dependence, withdrawal, or addiction.

Drug interactions. Medical investigators suspect that heroin and MDEA counteract each other's effects in humans.

Cancer. Not enough scientific information to report.

Pregnancy. Not enough scientific information to report.

Additional scientific information may be found in:

Gouzoulis, E., et al. "Neuroendocrine and Cardiovascular Effects of MDE in Healthy

Volunteers." Neuropsychopharmacology 8 (1993): 187-93. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., et al. "Psychopathological, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE), Psilocybin and D-Methamphetamine in Healthy Volunteers. Results of an Experimental DoubleBlind Placebo-Controlled Study." Psychopharmacology 142 (1999): 41-50. Hegadoren, K.M., G.B. Baker, and M. Bourin. "3,4-Methylenedioxy Analogues of Amphetamine: Defining the Risks to Humans." Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 23 (1999): 539-53. Hermle, L., et al. "Psychological Effects of MDE in Normal Subjects. Are Entacto-gens a New Class of Psychoactive Agents?" Neuropsychopharmacology 8 (1993): 171-76.

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