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1. W.P. Czerwinski, "Amphetamine-Related Disorders," Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society 150 (1998): 491; R. Reeves, "President's Health the Great Coverup of JFK Years," Kansas City Star, Oct. 11, 1992, K4; R. Reeves, President Kennedy: Profile of Power (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 178, 243, 648n. 146; T.C. Reeves, A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy (New York: The Free Press, 1991), 295-96; C.D. Heymann, A Woman Named Jackie (New York: Lyle Stuart, 1989), 296-319.

2. R. King, The Drug Hang-up (New York: W.W. Norton, 1972), 271, 283-85.

3. C.O. Jackson, "The Amphetamine Inhaler: A Case Study of Medical Abuse," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 26 (1971): 187-96. The author is also indebted to Jackson's article for other colorful examples of amphetamine's history.

4. R.D. Rogers et al., "Dissociable Deficits in the Decision-making Cognition of Chronic Amphetamine Abusers, Opiate Abusers, Patients with Focal Damage to Prefrontal Cortex, and Tryptophan-Depleted Normal Volunteers: Evidence for Monoam-inergic Mechanisms," Neuropsychopharmacology 20 (1999): 322-39.

5. "Adderall," "Dextrostat," and "Dexedrine," in Physicians' Desk Reference, 56th ed. (Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 2002), 1513, 3231, 3237.

6. L. Milkovich and B.J. van den Berg, "Effects of Antenatal Exposure to Anorectic Drugs," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 129 (1977): 637. See also M.A. Plessinger, "Prenatal Exposure to Amphetamines: Risks and Adverse Outcomes in Pregnancy," Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 25 (1998): 119-38.

7. L. Cernerud et al., "Amphetamine Addiction during Pregnancy: 14-Year Follow-up of Growth and School Performance," Acta Paediatrica 85 (1996): 204-8; L. Billing et al., "The Influence of Environmental Factors on Behavioural Problems in 8-Year-Old Children Exposed to Amphetamine during Fetal Life," Child Abuse and Neglect 18 (1994): 3-9. See also M. Eriksson et al., "Cross-sectional Growth of Children Whose Mothers Abused Amphetamines during Pregnancy," Acta Paediatrica 83 (1994): 612-17.

8. C.M. Apovian, "The Use of Pharmacologic Agents in the Treatment of the Obese Patient," Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, pt.2, 99 (1999, Suppl.): S2-S7; W.S. Poston II et al., "Challenges in Obesity Management," Southern Medical Journal 91 (1998): 710-20.

9. S.B. Penick and J.R. Hinkle, "The Effect of Expectation on Response to Phen-metrazine," Psychosomatic Medicine 26 (1964): 369-73.

10. J. Mellar and L.E. Hollister, "Phenmetrazine: An Obsolete Problem Drug," Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 32 (1982): 672.

11. K.S. Kendler et al., "Illicit Psychoactive Substance Use, Heavy Use, Abuse, and Dependence in a U.S. Population-Based Sample of Male Twins," Archives of General Psychiatry 57 (2000): 261-69.

12. J.B. Milby et al., "Initiating Abstinence in Cocaine Abusing Dually Diagnosed Homeless Persons," Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60 (2000): 55-67.

13. G.W. Hall et al., "Pathological Gambling among Cocaine-Dependent Outpatients," American Journal of Psychiatry 157 (2000): 1127-33.

14. C.S. Lopes and E.S. Coutinho, "Transtornos mentais como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de abuso/dependencia de cocaína: Estudo caso-controle" (Mental disorders as risk factors for the development of cocaine abuse/dependence: Case-control study), Revista de Saude Publica 33 (1999): 477-86 (abstract in English).

15. Hall et al., "Pathological Gambling among Cocaine-Dependent Outpatients."

16. H.A. Siegal et al., "Crack-Cocaine Users as Victims of Physical Attack," Journal of the National Medical Association 92 (2000): 76-82.

17. C.R. Schermer and D.H. Wisner, "Methamphetamine Use in Trauma Patients: A Population-Based Study," Journal of the American College of Surgeons 189 (1999): 442-49.

18. D.B. Kandel and K. Chen, "Extent of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence in the United States: 1991-1993," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2 (2000): 263-74.

23. M.A. Hernández-Mezquita et al., "Opinión de los directores escolares sobre la influencia de factores del medio escolar en la actitud de niños y jóvenes ante el tabaco" (Influence of school environment on student's attitudes about tobacco consumption in the opinion of the headmasters), Anales Españoles de Pediatría 52 (2000): 132-37 (abstract in English).

24. G.A. Giovino, "Epidemiology of Tobacco Use among U.S. Adolescents," Nicotine and Tobacco Research 1 (1999, Suppl. 1): S31-S40.

25. M.Y. Chong, K.W. Chan, and A.T. Cheng, "Substance Use Disorders among Adolescents in Taiwan: Prevalence, Sociodemographic Correlates and Psychiatric Comorbidity," Psychological Medicine 29 (1999): 1387-96.

26. N.A. Rigotti, J.E. Lee, and H. Wechsler, "U.S. College Students' Use of Tobacco Products: Results of a National Survey," Journal of the American Medical Association 284 (2000): 699-705.

27. C.H. Schenck and M.W. Mahowald, "Long-Term, Nightly Benzodiazepine Treatment of Injurious Parasomnias and Other Disorders of Disrupted Nocturnal Sleep in 170 Adults," American Journal of Medicine 100 (1996): 333-37.

28. D.A. Ciraulo, "Abuse Potential of Benzodiazepines," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 61 (1985): 728-41.

29. L. Walters and P. Nel, "Die Afhanklikheidspotensiaal van die Bensodiasepiene: Toepassing van die Resultate van die Behandeling van die Alkoholonttrekkingsind-room" (The addiction potential of benzodiazepines. Application of the results of treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome), South African Medical Journal 59 (1981): 115-16 (abstract in English). See also L. Walters and P. Nel, "Pharmacological Requirements of Patients during Alcohol Withdrawal," South African Medical Journal 59 (1981): 114.

30. A.H. Soderpalm and S. Hansen, "Benzodiazepines Enhance the Consumption and Palatability of Alcohol in the Rat," Psychopharmacology 137 (1998): 215-22.

31. In addition to other studies cited in this paragraph, see L. Laegreid, G. Hagberg, and A. Lundberg, "The Effect of Benzodiazepines on the Fetus and the Newborn," Neuropediatrics 23 (1992): 18-23.

32. L. Laegreid, G. Hagberg, and A. Lundberg, "Neurodevelopment in Late Infancy after Prenatal Exposure to Benzodiazepines—A Prospective Study," Neuropediatrics 23 (1992): 60-67.

33. L. Laegreid, "Clinical Observations in Children after Prenatal Benzodiazepine Exposure," Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 15 (1990): 186-88. See also G. Viggedal, "Mental Development in Late Infancy after Prenatal Exposure to Benzodiazepines—A Prospective Study," Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 34 (1993): 295-305.

34. U. Bergman et al., "Effects of Exposure to Benzodiazepine during Fetal Life," Lancet 340 (1992): 694-96. See also J.A. Kuller et al., "Pharmacologic Treatment of Psychiatric Disease in Pregnancy and Lactation: Fetal and Neonatal Effects," Obstetrics and Gynecology 87 (1996): 789-94; S.D. Silberstein, "Headaches and Women: Treatment of the Pregnant and Lactating Migraineur," Headache 33 (1993): 536.

35. P.R. McElhatton, "The Effects of Benzodiazepine Use during Pregnancy and Lactation," Reproductive Toxicology 8 (1994): 461-75.

36. L. Stika et al., "Effects of Drug Administration in Pregnancy on Children's School

Behaviour," Pharmaceutisch Weekblad: Scientific Edition 12 (1990): 252-55 (abstract in English).

37. A. Czeizel, "Lack of Evidence of Teratogenicity of Benzodiazepine Drugs in Hungary," Reproductive Toxicology 1 (1987-1988): 183-88. See also Kuller et al., "Pharma-cologic Treatment of Psychiatric Disease in Pregnancy and Lactation: Fetal and Neonatal Effects."

38. A. Ornoy et al., "Is Benzodiazepine Use during Pregnancy Really Teratogenic?"

Reproductive Toxicology 12 (1998): 511-15. See also P.R. McElhatton et al., "The Outcome of Pregnancy in 689 Women Exposed to Therapeutic Doses of Antidepressants: A Collaborative Study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services (EN-TIS)," Reproductive Toxicology 10 (1996): 285-94.

39. L. Laegreid et al., "Congenital Malformations and Maternal Consumption of Benzodiazepines: A Case-Control Study," Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 32 (1990): 432-41; P.R. McElhatton, "The Effects of Benzodiazepine Use during Pregnancy and Lactation," Reproductive Toxicology 8 (1994): 461-75; U. Bergman, "Pharmacoepi-demiological Perspectives on the Suspected Teratogenic Effects of Benzodiazepines," Bratislavske Lekarske Listy 92 (1991): 560-63 (abstract in English).

40. J.W. Olney et al., "Environmental Agents That Have the Potential to Trigger Massive Apoptotic Neurodegeneration in the Developing Brain," Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (2000, Suppl. 3): 383-88.

41. J. Porter and H. Jick, "Addiction Rare in Patients Treated with Narcotics," New England Journal of Medicine 302 (1980): 123.

42. "Nandrolone decanoate," in Therapeutic Drugs, ed. C. Dollery, 2d ed. (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1999), N29.

43. P.W. Meilman et al., "Beyond Performance Enhancement: Polypharmacy among Collegiate Users of Steroids," Journal of American College Health 44 (1995): 98-104.

44. R.H. du Rant, L.G. Escobedo, and G.W. Heath, "Anabolic-Steroid Use, Strength Training, and Multiple Drug Use among Adolescents in the United States," Pediatrics 96 (1995, pt. 1): 23-28.

45. H.H. Glaser and O.N. Massengale, "Glue-Sniffing in Children: Deliberate Inhalation of Vaporized Plastic Cements," Journal of the American Medical Association 181 (1962): 300-304.

46. P.W. Lewis and D.W. Patterson, "Acute and Chronic Effects of the Voluntary Inhalation of Certain Commercial Volatile Solvents by Juveniles," Journal of Drug Issues 4 (1974): 167.

47. R.J. Goldsmith, "Death by Freon," Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 50 (1989): 36-37.

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Do Not Panic

Do Not Panic

This guide Don't Panic has tips and additional information on what you should do when you are experiencing an anxiety or panic attack. With so much going on in the world today with taking care of your family, working full time, dealing with office politics and other things, you could experience a serious meltdown. All of these things could at one point cause you to stress out and snap.

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