Whats The Difference Between Cocaine And Crack

When cocaine started to make its big comeback in this country in the 1970s, snorting was the major route of administration. At that time, people could not smoke cocaine (it was only available in powder form), because it burned rather than vaporized. Some users injected the drug, but most were not willing to do this. People could smoke cocaine by chemically converting it to its free-base form, but this was a dangerous process that required highly flammable chemicals and a flame to heat them...

Deconditioning

Addicts don't understand where their cravings come from (classical conditioning is unconscious learning), but all are likely to relapse if they don't learn how to recognize and work to neutralize these cravings. Some clinical researchers have been trying to decondition addicts by helping them identify and deal with the cues, or triggers, they unconsciously develop while they are addicted. Within the safety of the treatment center, these treatment providers expose and reexpose addicts to all of...

Caffeine

The most widely used drug in the world is caffeine. People have consumed products from plants that contain caffeine (found in coffee and many carbonated beverages) and its chemical cousins, theophylline (found in tea) and theobromine (found in tea and cocoa), for many thousands of years. In the doses that most people consume, these drugs, as mild stimulants, produce slight elevation in mood and increased alertness. Moreover, in fatigued people, these drugs increase the ability to concentrate...

Henrys Nearlethal Alliance With Heroin

As we see with Henry, who overdosed on heroin and nearly died, drugs like heroin, cocaine, and alcohol can have lethal, short-term effects. By mimick ing a natural neurochemical in Henry's brain, heroin blocked the messages his brain uses to regulate his breathing. If it hadn't been for the paramedics, he would have stopped breathing. A heroin-blocking drug, the antagonist naloxone, which scientists originally developed in an effort to produce drugs that would relieve pain but not produce...

Designer Drugs

In the same way that legitimate chemists try to make useful drugs to meet the needs of patients, illicit chemists have tried to make drugs to meet the needs of drug dealers, abusers, and addicts. Until relatively recently, the Controlled Substances Act, the law designed to control the availability of drugs that people abuse, listed each illegal drug according to its specific chemical components. Basement chemists could accommodate dealers by slightly changing the chemical structure of a drug to...

Drugs Teach Animals to Take More Drugs

Laboratory experiments with monkeys illustrate just how powerfully drugs turn on the reward system. Scientists insert a special catheter into a monkey's vein. The catheter is hooked to a pump that pushes a specific dose of cocaine into the blood each time the monkey presses a bar to which the pump is attached. This monkey has been trained to press bars that release food and water, but now the scientist has introduced a third bar, and pressing this one releases cocaine into the monkey's...