Cocacocaine International

When Amerigo Vespucci landed on the coast of what is now Venezuela in 1499, the first thing he saw was a group of native peoples chewing coca leaf. The captain and most of his crew thought the practice disgusting, but it did not take Spanish colonists long to discover that chewing small amounts of coca leaf gave them more energy. In 1559, the Spanish herbalist and physician Nicholas Monardes, who practiced in the port city of Seville, heard stories about coca and saw the plants collected by...

Bibliography

H., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R. R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J. I., Jr., et al. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking A report from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(11), 982-988. Block, J., Block, J. H., & Keyes, S. (1988). Longitudinally foretelling drug usage in adolescence Early childhood personality and environmental precursors. Child...

Crop Control Policies

Crops that produce heroin, cocaine, and cannabis are respectively the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum the coca bush, Erythroxylum coca and the three cannabis plants Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis, the most widely grown of which is Cannabis sativa. Crop control policies have included a wide range of strategies, from diplomatic pressure to enforced eradication. The most difficult crop to control is cannabis because it can grow almost anywhere in the world, even in...

C

In the early twenty-first century, caffeine continues to be the most widely used psy-choactive substance in the world. It can be found in a variety of dietary sources and medications, including coffee, tea, candy, soft drinks, and over-the-counter analgesics (pain medications) and cold remedies (Ogawa & Ueki, 2007). As a legal stimulant, caffeine is consumed daily by approximately 80 percent of the world's population, and it is available to both children and adults. Studies have...

Alcoholic

Have shown that the damage and loss of volume in heavy drinkers tend to be most severe in the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, anterior hippocampus, and cerebellum (Pfeifferbaum et al., 1995 Rourke & Loberg, 1996), areas linked to executive cognitive functions, memory, and motor movements. However, cell loss is not restricted to these brain regions only and may be widespread throughout a number of cortical and subcortical areas. Autopsy studies have shown that the brains of alcoholics are...

Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Adam And Adam Ii

The Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program was a data collection system that evolved from the landmark Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). DUF collected data from 1987 to 1997 in 23 cities across the United States. It was originally designed to collect interview and bioassay (urine) data from persons within 48 hours of arrest. In a brief interview the program collected information on each arrestee's drug use, including drug-use history and...

Linda Mayes

Special Advisor to the Dean, Yale School of Medicine Arnold Gesell Professor, Child Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Psychology, Yale Child Study Center MICHAEL R. McCART Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Medical University of South Carolina Treatment, Specialty Approaches to Adolescents Editor, Lexicographer, Researcher Ardmore, PA Therapeutic Drugs Testing in Animals Jimsonweed Myths About Addiction and Its Treatment Director, Treatment Research Institute Professor,...

Sarah S Olson

Department of Psychiatry University of California, San Francisco Institute for Social Research The University of Michigan Monitoring the Future Professor of Psychiatry Yale University School of Medicine Tobacco Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain Department of Psychiatry Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS)

C920

Association between tobacco and cancer as identified by various meta-analyses and reviews. Illustration by GGS Information Services. Gale, Cengage Learning Table 2. Association between tobacco and cancer as identified by various meta-analyses and reviews. Illustration by GGS Information Services. Gale, Cengage Learning In 2004, the U.S. Surgeon General added the following diseases to the list of those for which evidence is sufficient to conclude a causal relationship between smoking...

A

The abstinence violation effect (AVE) describes an individual's affective and cognitive reaction following a lapse, or initial return to an undesired behavior. When an individual makes a commitment to abstain from or moderate a specific behavior (for example, substance use, eating, or sexual behaviors) and then re-engages in that behavior, the emotional response and cognitive attributions may mediate the potential for a full relapse, or return to the original...

Uhk

Reward O Initiation of drug-seeking O Habitual use Reward O Initiation of drug-seeking O Habitual use O GABA peptides O Glutamate O Dopamine O GABA peptides O Glutamate O Dopamine Figure 1. Neuronal circuit involved learning addictive behavior and relapse. (A) The major components of the system for learning drug-seeking behaviors are the same as learning normal reward seeking, and include the dopamine pathways from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens caudate, amygdala, and...

Agonistantagonist Mixed

A mixed agonist-antagonist is a drug or receptor ligand that possesses pharmacological properties similar to both agonists and antagonists for certain receptor sites. Well-known mixed agonist-antagonists are drugs that interact with opioid (morphine-like) receptors. Pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol, and buprenorphine are all mixed agonist-antagonists for opioid receptors. These drugs bind to the m (mu) opioid receptor to compete with other substances (e.g., morphine) for this binding site...

B

Barbiturates refer to a class of general central nervous system depressants that are derived from barbituric acid, a chemical discovered in 1863 by the Nobel Prize winner in chemistry (1905) Adolf von Baeyer (1835-1917). Barbituric acid itself is devoid of central depressant activity however, German scientists Emil Hermann Fischer and Joseph von Mering made some modifications to its structure and synthesized barbital, which was found to possess depressant properties. Scientists...

Chemistry And Pharmacology

Alcohol is produced by a chemical process known as fermentation, in which microorganisms (bacteria or yeast) transform the sugars found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and grains into alcohol, carbon dioxide, and energy. Alcohol production can be expedited by providing optimal environmental conditions for these microbes. Five basic molecular forms of alcohol have been discovered. These forms vary only in the number of carbon atoms in each molecule, but this small difference results in...

Complications Due to Smoking Inhaling

The fastest delivery of large amounts of drug directly to the brain is through smoking (inhaling). Drugs taken in this way go directly to the lungs and are absorbed along with oxygen directly into the blood heading for the brain. The two terms, smoking and inhaling, as a means of drug intake, are clearly differentiated when, on the one hand, material is actually burned and the resulting smoke is taken into the lungs as with tobacco or marijuana or on the other hand, when fumes from volatile...

D

Delirium Tremens (DTs) Depression Designer Drugs Dextroamphetamine Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic Criteria Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS) Distilled Spirits, Types of Distilled Spirits Council Dogs in Drug Detection DOM Dopamine Dose-Response Relationship Dover's Powder Dramshop Liability Laws Driving, Alcohol, and Drugs Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Dropouts and Substance Use Drug Drug Abuse Reporting Program (DARP)...

Editorial And Production Staff

Douglas Dentino, Angela Doolin, Alan Hedblad, Jeffrey Lehman, Mark Mikula Contributing Editors Ken Wachsberger, Jeffrey Wilson Editorial Assistants Caitlin Cowan, Amy Kwolek, Jacyln Setili, Darcy Thompson Patti Brecht, Judy Clinebell, Laurie Edwards, Lauren Grace, Peter Jaskowiak, Melodie Monahan, Pam Revitzer, Ann Shurgin Rebecca J. Frey, Andrea Fritsch, Carol Holmes, Donna Wright Custom Graphics GGS Book Services, PMG, York, Pennsylvania Technical Support Mark Drouillard, Mark Springer...

Frederick K Grittner

Adjunct Professor Hamline University School ofLaw Asset Forfeiture Border Management Civil Remedies Controls Scheduled Drugs Drug Schedules, U.S. Crime and Alcohol Crime and Drugs Distilled Spirits Council Dramshop Liability Laws Drug Interdiction Drug Laws, Prosecution of Analysis in Enforcement Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Exclusionary Rule Foreign Policy and Drugs, United States Legal Regulation of Drugs and Alcohol Mandatory Sentencing New York State Civil Commitment Program...

From 1000 to 1500

The Middle Ages was marked by a rapid spread of both Christianity and Islam. Large-scale political and economic integration spread with them to many areas that had previously seen only local warring factions, and sharp social stratification between nobles and commoners was evident at courts and manors, where food and drink became more elaborate. National groups began to appear, with cultural differences (including preferred drinks and ways of drinking), increasingly noted by travelers, of whom...

Gale

Detroit New York San Francisco New Haven, Conn Waterville, Maine London Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, & Addictive Behavior, 3rd edition Pamela Korsmeyer and Henry R. Kranzler, Editors in Chief 2009 Macmillan Reference USA, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying,...

I

Imaging Techniques Visualizing the Living Brain Industry and Workplace, Drug Use in Inhalants Inhalants Extent of Use and Complications Injecting Drug Users and HIV International Classification of Diseases (ICD) International Control Policies International Drug Supply Systems Internet Impact on Drug and Alcohol Use Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Substance Use

Info

The measurement of blood alcohol concentrations has both clinical and legal applications. The most important factors that determine BAC are the presence of food in the stomach, the concentration of alcohol consumed, the rate and volume of alcohol consumed, and gender. Consuming food with alcohol generally decreases the volume of alcohol that can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream. This is more evident for small volumes of more concentrated alcohol such as hard liquor...

Oh

The numbers refer to carbon atoms, and the hydrogen and hydroxyl groups are at carbon 17. Illustration by GGS Information Services. Gale, Cengage Learning Figure 1. Testosterone molecule. The numbers refer to carbon atoms, and the hydrogen and hydroxyl groups are at carbon 17. Illustration by GGS Information Services. Gale, Cengage Learning many U.S. sports organizations, and some countries such as Australia ban it. Testosterone has a four-ring structure...

P

Pain Behavioral Methods for Measuring Analgesic Effects of Drugs Pain, Drugs Used for Papaver Somniferum Paraphernalia, Laws Against Paregoric Pharmacodynamics Pharmacokinetics General Pharmacokinetics Implications for Abusable Substances Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol Pharmacology Phencyclidine (PCP) Phencyclidine (PCP) Adverse Effects Phenobarbital Physical Dependence Physicians and Medical Workers, Substance Abuse Pregnancy and Drug Dependence Prescription Drug Abuse Prescription Drug...

Route Of Administration

The mode of drug administration ingestion (by mouth), nasal insufflation (snorting), inhalation (smoking), or injection (intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular) can be responsible for a number of medical complications to alcohol and other drug use. These complications are discussed as direct and indirect results of the various modes (route) of administration. Ingestion is the way alcohol, liquid medicines, pills, and capsules are usually taken. Ingested drugs enter the gastrointestinal...

Tace

Temperance Movement Terrorism and Drugs Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Theobromine Tobacco Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain Tolerance and Physical Dependence Toughlove Treatment An Overview of Alcohol Abuse Dependence An Overview of Drug Abuse Dependence A History of Treatment in the United States Treatment, Behavioral Approaches to An Overview Cognitive Therapy Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Contingency Management Couples and Family Therapy Group Therapy Long-term versus Brief Minnesota Model...

Thomas Babor

Professor and Chair, Department of Community Medicine & Health Care University of Connecticut School of Medicine Addiction (Journal) Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic Criteria Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) International Classification of Screening Test (MAST) Treatment, Stages Phases of Screening and Brief Intervention

V

Over-the-counter or prescription cough medicines with codeine may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence Table 1. Drugs are scheduled under federal law according to their effects, medical use, and potential for abuse. (Adapted from Drugs of Abuse (2005), Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice.) Illustration by GGS Information Services. Gale, Cengage Learning Table 1. Drugs are scheduled under federal law according to their effects, medical use, and potential...

Alcoholism Abstinence Versus Controlled Drinking

Until the 1970s therapists and researchers in the alcohol field accepted full and continuous abstinence as the only treatment goal for alcohol dependence. Every form of reduced use at the end of treatment was seen as complete failure and any renewed use after abstinence periods as a full relapse. This position became controversial when two young scientists published the results of a randomized clinical trial (Sobell & Sobell, 1973a, b) in which controlled drinking (CD) was not only observed...

History Of Drinking In The United States

When the Arbella departed England for Boston's shores in 1630, its Puritan voyagers had stowed away three times as much beer as water, plus some 10,000 gallons of wine. Colonial Americans regarded alcohol as the Good Creature of God and early settlers, like their European and British forbears, drew a strong distinction between drinking and drunkenness, the latter being the work of the devil. Whether rum distilled from West Indian sugar, home-brewed beer, or imported wines, alcohol was a staple...

Psychological Consequences Of Chronic Abuse

Chronic alcohol abuse (heavy drinking over a long period) can lead to numerous adverse effects to direct effects such as impaired attention, increased anxiety, depression, and increased risk-taking behaviors and to indirect effects such as impaired cognitive abilities, which may be linked to nutritional deficiencies from long-term heavy drinking. A major difficulty in describing the effects of chronic alcohol abuse is that many factors interact with such consumption, resulting in marked...

Negative consequences

In the early 1990s, it was estimated that between 7 and 10 percent of all individuals drinking alcoholic beverages experience some degree of negative consequences as a result of their drinking pattern. Most people believe that chronic excessive drinking results in a variety of behavioral consequences, including poor work school performance and inappropriate social behavior. These two behavioral criteria are used in most diagnostic protocols aimed at determining if a drinking problem exists....

Barbiturates Complications

Barbiturates are central nervous system (CNS) depressants (downers). These drugs produce sedative, hypnotic, and anesthetic effects. Depending on the dose used, any single drug in this class may produce sedation (decreased responsiveness), hypnosis (sleep), and anesthesia (loss of sensation). A small dose will produce sedation and relieve anxiety and tension a somewhat larger dose taken in a quiet setting will usually produce sleep an even larger dose will produce unconsciousness. The sleep...

Cancer Drugs And Alcohol

Disease burden attributable to alcohol The World Health Organization's 2000 Comparative Risk Assessment Study (see Ezzati et al., 2004 Lopez et al., 2006 Rehm et al., 2004), found alcohol to be one of the most important risk factors for the global burden of disease, with alcohol ranking fifth, just behind tobacco (the alcohol-attributable burden was 4.0 of the global burden, compared to 4.1 for tobacco). Only underweight resulting from malnutrition and underfeeding, unsafe sex, and high blood...

1

Criteria for U.S. drug scheduling. (Adapted from Drugs of Abuse (2005), Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice.) Illustration by GGS Information Services. Gale, Cengage Learning Table 2. Criteria for U.S. drug scheduling. (Adapted from Drugs of Abuse (2005), Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice.) Illustration by GGS Information Services. Gale, Cengage Learning generally contain limited quantities of certain narcotic drugs used for cough and...

College On Problems Of Drug Dependence Cpdd

The College on Problems of Drug Dependence (Martin W. Adler, Ph.D., Executive Officer, CPDD, Department of Pharmacology, 3420 N. Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140 http views. vcu.edu cpdd ) is the nation's oldest organization devoted to the problem of drug use and addiction. It is an incorporated, not-for-profit, scientific organization that acts independently of both the u.S. government and the pharmaceutical industry while fostering an exchange of knowledge and resources across the...

Aging Drugs And Alcohol

Despite the aging of the U.S. population and the resultant increase in the proportion of adults living to an advanced age, relatively little research has examined the correlates, predictors, and consequences of substance use among older adults. Thus, substance misuse in later life which includes the use of alcohol and illicit, prescription, and over-the-counter drugs has been called an invisible epidemic'' (Widlitz & Marin, 2002). Although older adults report lower levels ofsubstance use...

Assessment Of Substance

See Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) AUDADIS Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) HIV Risk Assessment Battery (RAB) Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) T-ACE. ASSET FORFEITURE. Asset forfeiture is the involuntary relinquishment of money or property without compensation as a consequence of a commission of a crime....

Accidents And Injuries From Drugs

The effects of drugs, including alcohol, may be divided into three categories acute, carryover, and chronic. Acute effects are those that occur while the person is directly under the immediate effects of the drug (intoxicated or high), and it is during these times that individuals become very vulnerable to accidents and injuries. Carryover effects are effects that occur after the drug has been essentially eliminated from the system, but the effects of the drugs remain to some degree. A hangover...

Prevalence and Scope of Property and Violent

Several key studies have revealed an exceptionally high prevalence of property crime among narcotic addicts. Anglin and Speckart (1988) found that 82 percent of a sample of 386 California male narcotic addicts reported involvement in property crime over an average five-year period of daily narcotic use. Anglin and Hser (1987) reported that 77 percent of a sample of 196 female narcotic addicts from California admitted to involvement in property crime during an average six-year narcotic...

Medical And Behavioral Toxicity Overview

Alcohol and other drugs of abuse cause considerable adverse health effects. Both legal and illegal drugs (substances) of abuse are taken to modify mood, feeling, thinking, and perception. As with most drugs (medications), both acute and chronic toxicities occur. In general, the term acute refers to the short period of time when the drug is present in the body, exerting its main effects. The term chronic refers to a longer period, usually years. Acute toxicity results in the impairment of...

Amotivational Syndrome

Term amotivational syndrome is often used interchangeably with apathy syndrome. Both terms refer to a set of characteristics that have been associated with the use of marijuana, cocaine, and inhalants. Based on experiments conducted in the 1960s and 1970s, amotivational syndrome is characterized by a broad range of symptoms, including general apathy, lethargy, severe reduction in activities, difficulty in carrying out long-term plans, depression, and an inability to concentrate. The condition...

Adolescents And Drug

Adolescence, generally defined as the teenage years, bridges childhood and adulthood. During this period, pubertal development is concluded, the brain undergoes reorganization of functional circuitry, intellectual capacities attain plateau, and physical growth is completed. These biological processes are complemented by the assumption of adult roles (e.g., working), accompanied by expansion of the behavior repertoire concomitant to attaining majority age (e.g., sex, driving a car, substance...

Nutritional

Malnutrition is a common problem among abusers of alcohol and other addictive substances, contributing significantly to their deleterious effects. Nutritional problems among alcohol and substance abusers begin with inadequate or poorly selected food intake and continue with incomplete absorption or metabolism of nutrients. The effects are often insidious, and may take many years to manifest themselves. This entry not only describes the various nutritional deficits associated with substance...

Cocaethylene Immunologic Hepatic And Cardiac Effects

Cocaethylene, a compound synthesized by the body when cocaine is used concurrently with alcohol, was first identified in 1979. Because the halflife (the time required for the body to break down and eliminate half of the substance) of cocaethylene is three to five times that of cocaine, it extends the euphoric sensation of cocaine and lessens the dysphoria (unpleasantness or discomfort) associated with its cessation. In 2006, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 33 percent of...

Pamela V Michaels

Testing in Humans Alcoholism Origin of the Term Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System ARCOS Fetus, Effects of Drugs on the Funding and Service Delivery Alcoholism and Drug Dependence NCADD National Forensic Laboratory Information System NFLIS Professional Credentialing Public Intoxication Racial Profiling Remove Intoxicated Drivers RID-USA, Inc. Cultures Sleep, Dreaming, and Drugs SMART Recovery and Rational Recovery Students Against Destructive Decisions SADD Tolerance and...