Step by Step: Learn How To Clone Your Marijuana Plants

The seedling growth stage lasts for about two to three weeks after seeds have germinated. A plant stunted now could take weeks to resume normal growth. A strong, unrestricted root system is essential to supply much needed water and nutrients. Unrestricted vegetative growth is the key to a healthy harvest. A plant's nutrient and water intake changes during vegetative growth.

The Best Overall Method for Drying Mushrooms

The best way to preserve mushrooms is to dry them as soon as possible after picking. It is very important when drying that the mushrooms never be exposed to heat. Psilocybin and Psilocin, the main active chemicals in Psilocybe mushrooms, are heat-sensitive chemicals that will break down if exposed to heat. You can get away with drying them in the sun, but expect some loss in potency. Another common method of drying is to put the mushrooms in an enclosed container.

Recipes and Controls Chart

Add to sprays to dry out pests. Bleach Use a 5 percent solution as a genera disinfectant. Cinnamon Dilute cinnamon oil with water. Use just a few drops per pint as pesticide. Citrus Cilrus oils make great ingredients that kill insects dead. Garlic Use a garlic press to squeeze garlic juice into mix. Use liberal amounts. Horseradish Stinky stuff Add as you would garlic. Best to use fresh root. Hot pepper Dilute Tabasco' or any store-bought concentrate in water,...

Meth Damages The Brain Permanently

For 20 years, scientific evidence has shown that long-term use of meth depletes supplies of dopamine by damaging dopamine receptors in the brain.24 Studies indicate that this brain damage can be permanent. Long-term meth users may develop life-long problems with verbal skills, memory, and may even develop Parkinson's disease, an incurable nervous disorder with symptoms of trembling hands and extreme muscle stiffness.6, 11 According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), animal studies...

Merozoite Invasion

The landmark video recording (Dvorak et al. 1975) and two ultrastructural studies (Bannister et al. 1975 Aikawa et al. 1978) of simian malarial parasite P.knowlesi invading erythrocytes have shown that invasion is a stepwise process requiring an attachment of the apical end of the merozoite to the erythrocyte followed by a deformation of the erythrocyte (Fig. 1). The actual penetration of the merozoite into the erythrocyte only takes about 30-60 s to complete. The internalized merozoites are...

What Weapons Can Dea Agents Carry

SUBJECT USE or PEXDLV FORCE AKD OFriCTXL SOVERKMEKT VEHICLES A. This notice nfl procedures for Sections 6122.23 end B. These changes will be indoi or t d i to the next revision ef Chapter 61 of the Agfetfts Manufe shoot any person except in self-defense, felieve they or another p rsfch jrev odily harm. ots is expressly prohib uspecis except when th it poses a significant t serious physical injury to self or others. C. Shooting at a moving vehicle tires, etc., with the intent ef rendering it...

Dea Weapons Issued To Agents

Agents will act with utmost discretion to avoid displaying their weapon and giving cause for alarm to aircraft personnel- or passengers. Agents will not consume any alcoholic beverages aboard the aircraft while armed. B. When armed and operating in an undercover capacity, the Agent should not attempt to deceive airline or airport security personnel to maintain the Agent'6 cover. When necessary, surveillance Agents should prearrange the Agent's clearance through scanning devices. C. Should an...

Mushroom Spore Liquid Culture Honey

Sterilize them and allow to cool. To break the mycelium up while in the syringe, Draw air through the needle while flaming it. Then give the syringe a shake for 2 minutes. Then inoculate the jars with the syringe that was made. There you have it. Colonization should complete in about one to two weeks. Now the jar you injected the Karo into doesn't ever need to be birthed. It could be taped and put into the refrigerator to be re-used. You'll never need another...

Physical Dependence

Studies show that most marijuana users, even heavy users, can reduce or stop marijuana use with little or no physical withdrawal effects. Some extreme marijuana users do report physical withdrawal symptoms when they quit using the drug, including irritability, headaches, nervousness, and insomnia. However, these symptoms are temporary, diminishing within a few days to a few weeks, depending on the individual, and are usually portrayed as mild. Studies show that marijuana does not produce the...

How Mdma Works In The Brain

Malberg, Ph.D., and Katherine R. Bonson, Ph.D. The pharmacology of MDMA primarily involves two brain chemicals serotonin and dopamine. These neurotransmitters help nerve cells communicate with each other (as described below) and each of them have their own complex neural systems and behavioral responses. MDMA acts in the brain through three main neurochemical mechanisms blockade of serotonin reuptake, induction of serotonin release, and induction of dopamine release. With these...

Factors Affecting Bioactivity

The biochemical systems encountered by a drug molecule are extremely complex. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the factors affecting the drug's interactions and contributing to its final effect are also manyfold. The factors may be divided into three categories 1. Physicochemical properties such as solubility, partition coefficients, and ionization. 2. Chemical structure parameters such as resonance, inductive effect, oxidation potentials, types of bonding, and isosterism. 3. Spatial...

Low Cost Structures For Mushroom Growing Cultivation

A Texas Reishi production fac it> By modifying hoop-framed greennouses and covering them Kith an open-sided, metal roofec' super-structure growing rooms can be constructed at low cost figure 394. A Texas Reishi production fac it> By modifying hoop-framed greennouses and covering them Kith an open-sided, metal roofec' super-structure growing rooms can be constructed at low cost Figure 395. A Japanese mushroom grow ' ig house. Figure 395. A Japanese mushroom grow ' ig house. mesh...

Psilocybe Cyanescens Potent Mushrooms Growing On Wood Debris

At least one other Psilocybe species in addition to Psilocybe semilanceata is known to exist in Europe. At this point, I must emphasize that the differentiation of single species within the Psilocybe genus is subject to considerable controversy among eminent taxonomists. For example, there are different methods of distinguishing the Hypholoma genus from the Stropharia genus. While Psilocybe semilanceata is a species that has long been clearly defined and is well known by this name, there are,...

How does methamphetamine get out of the body?

The main way that meth exits the body is through renal excretion, also known as urination. The pH of the user's urine will determine how quickly the meth exits the body. The pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the urine, or any solution, for that matter, where two or more substances are mixed together. The more acidic the urine, the faster meth will exit the body.

Elimination

After the initial distribution phase, the rate-limiting step in the elimination of THC is its redistribution from lipid depots to blood (54). Early studies showed that Fig. 4. Urinary excretion profile of 11-nor-9-carboxy-A9-THC (THCCOOH) as measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) in one subject following smoking of a single 3.55 THC cigarette. The horizontal line at 15 ng mL represents the current GC MS cutoff used in most testing programs. The urinary THC-COOH concentrations...

Casing And Recasing

When one or more jars have been completely permeated by mycelium, one can move on to the fourth step in the process that leads directly to the productionof mushrooms. In commercial mushroom culture, this step is called rasing. In the method outlined here, casing consists of removing the dome and band lid of the jar, and covering the surface of the permeated rye with about Vi to 34 in. (Vi cup for quart jars) of sterilized soil (fig. 40 & 41). The soil should be premoistened to field capacity...

The Dmt High With Harmala Alkaloids

Harmala alkaloids potentiate DMT, not only in intensity and duration, but also in content and quality. The Harmala alkaloids also make DMT orally active, this being the method by which DMT is traditionally consumed in the Ayahuasca brews of the Amazon region. I have only recently begun experimenting with ingested DMT, and these experiences are described later in the chapter DMT Water Spirit. The Harmala alkaloids also intensify smoked DMT, and I have described this method of administration...

Structural characteristics of eukaryotic genes

The gene is a fragment of nucleic sequence that carries the information representing a particular polypeptide or RNA molecule. In eukaryotes, genes lie in a linear array on chromosomes, which consist of a long molecule of duplex DNA and chromatin proteins mostly histones that form a structure called a nucleosome . The complex of DNA and proteins chromatin can maintain genes in an inactive state by restricting access to RNA polymerase and its accessory factors. To activate a gene, the chromatin...

Magic mushrooms

Magic mushrooms contain psilocin and psilocybin, naturally-occurring compounds with hallucinogenic properties. Psilocin and psilocybin were designated Class A drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, apparently on account of their hallucinogenic properties. Psilocin is also listed under Schedule I, the highest level of prohibition, under the UN's Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971.94 Sir Michael Rawlins, Chairman of the ACMD, told us I have no idea what was going through the minds...

Bromo Quinine

The correct name for a cold is coryza, or acute rhinitis. It is an acute inflammation of the nasal cavities. This condition does not occur over night or by getting your feet wet or sitting in a draft. These shocks only bring it to a head. The beginning of it has been many weeks or months before, by allowing the system to run down and poisons to accumulate in the system. The mucous membranes of the nose and throat become inflamed and swollen then begin to run. Nature will unload these body...

High Surrealism

After their expulsion from Harvard, Leary and Alpert were determined to carry out additional studies in the religious use of psychedelic drugs. They set up a grassroots nonprofit group called the International Federation for Internal Freedom (IFIF), whose ranks quickly swelled to three thousand dues-paying members. Local offices sprang up in Boston, New York, and Los Angeles. IFIF believed that everyone should be allowed to use mind-expanding chemicals because the internal freedom they provided...

How to Collect Spores

A culture arising l'rom cloning is fundamentally di Jerent than a culture originating from spores. When spores are germ' ated, many different strains are created, some incompatible with one another. A cultivator will not know what features will be expressed until each and every strain is grown out to the final stage, that of mushroom production.T1 is form of genetic roulette results in very diverse strains, some more desirable than others. Mushroom spores are collected by taking a spore print....

Maintaining a Psilocybin Farm

Fresh inoculum can come from stock culture dishes kept under refrigeration. If these should become healthy strains of mycelium from the crop cultures can be used to inoculate sterilized agar media in the dishes. The crop culture jar is shaken violently to break up the mycelium. Then drops of the liquid are transferred to au-toclaved petri dishes of unused agar medium with a sterilized pipette and left to grow as before. If this reinoculation of stock cultures from existing crops is continued...

Calcium Channels Transmitter Release

When an action potential arrives at the axon terminal, it induces the release of a chemical transmitter. Transmitter release is a Ca2 -dependent process see Chapter 4 and requires a charge of Ca2 . This is provided through the action potential-induced Low threshold around 60 mV high threshold around 40 mV. 2s soma d dendrites t axon terminals. Low threshold around 60 mV high threshold around 40 mV. 2s soma d dendrites t axon terminals. opening of voltage-gated Ca2 channels. A variety of Ca2...

Ritalin and the Human Brain

ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER SYMPTOMS IN SEARCH OF A CAUSE The symptoms of inattention, distractibility and or hyperactivity that define attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve when treated with the stimulant drug Ritalin. For long-term success, however, the behaviors associated with these symptoms can also addressed with different techniques, some of which have been described in Chapter 2. These two different types of treatments point to two different causes for...

How To Press Skuff Into Hash

Again the quality of the skuff will determine the quality of hash that you will smoke. Remember on the first chapter we talked about Zero Zero Well this is a term used to grade the quality of hashish. The simple ratio is cannabinoids vegetable material. Good quality hashish has a high ratio of cannabinoids to vegetable material. 00 is a term used by Moroccans to express that the hash has the highest level of cannabinoids to vegetable achieved by their extraction process. You can almost imagine...

Chelidonium majus

Chelidonium majus (celandine, common celandine, greater celandine) contains a number of alkaloids, including chelidonine, chelerythrine, chelidocystatin, coptisine, sanguinarine, berberine, and sparteine. Greater celandine was traditionally used to improve eyesight and in modern times has been used as a mild sedative, and antispasmodic in the treatment of bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, jaundice, gallstones, and gallbladder pain. The latex is used topically to treat warts, ringworm, and...

Free Soma Soil Recipe

People I meet and smoke with always ask me, how do you get your pot to taste so good. I am an intense caretaker and lover of plants, when I do it I am fanatical in working with them, making little sacrifices in my own life so that the plants can feel the best they can. I always think medicine first, bills, money, problems, second. To get medicinal cannabis I grow on organic soil, rich in worm castings and all the other nutrients and trace minerals needed for a healthy weed plant. I don't use...

The Bubble Bucket

1 Get two 5-Gallon buckets with lids. Wash it out with bleach 3 Cut a hole in lid of bucket so the net pot sits in neatly all the way down. 4 Cut a hole in the lid about 2cm in diameter near the rim the pump hose goes in here . 5 Use Black gaffer tape to wrap the pot so it is light proof. If light gets in alga will develop in the water. This is not good. Wrap the lid as well. 6 Get a fish-tank pump and air-stone. 7 Get your medium together - rockwool, clay pebbles etc. 8 Get the Nutrients and...

Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn

From Greek, drys oak, balanos nut, and aromatikos aroma Physical description It is large timber tree which is recognized miles away by its greyish looking foliage and the shape of its crown, which is best described as being like an umbrella. It is found in primary rainforests up to 800 feet above sea level, in Malaysia and Indonesia. This tree grows to a height of 50 m. Leaves simple, spiral, up to 10 cm long, leathery, ovate and acuminate.The inflorescences consist of terminal 5 cm long...

The Dogbane botanical family Apocynaceae

Some plant families are especially rich in alkaloids. The Dogbane botanical family Apocynaceae Lindl., Juss. is a good example Table 2 . This family is distributed worldwide, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas. The Dogbane family is a large botanical taxa containing at least 150 genera and 1700 species. Alkaloids are especially abundant in the following Table 2 General botanical characteristics of the Dogbane family Opposite or verticillate with reduced stipules Pinnateveined...

Old World Hallucinogens

Existing evidence indicates that man in the Old World Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia has made less use of native plants and shrubs for their hallucinogenic properties than has man in the New World. There is little reason to believe that the vegetation of one half of the globe is poorer or richer in species with hallucinogenic properties than the other half. Why, then, should there be such disparity Has man in the Old World simply not discovered many of the native hallucinogenic plants Are...

Duboisia Hopwoodii

Common Names Pituri, pedgery, pitchery. Related Species Duboisia myoporoides, Duboisia leickhartii. Taxonomy Family Solanaceae. A shrub, sometimes a small tree. The genus is endemic to Australia. Chemistry Tropane alkaloids scopolomine and hyoscamine are present in Duboisia myop-oroides and D. leickhartii. Most accounts therefore ascribe the same chemistry to Duboisia hopwoodii, but according to Pamela Watson (1983b) Duboisia hopwoodii contains nicotine and d-nornicotine. Moreover, the...

LSD and Parkinsons Disease

In a very real sense the circle is also closing with respect to Hofmann's hope, expressed at the time of his epoch-making discovery of LSD, that because of its ability to mimic certain mental illnesses the drug might prove useful in their treatment. In fact, LSD has been employed to that end over the years by some psychiatrists, often with beneficial results. However, the potency of LSD and the severe legal limitations imposed in recent years on its use even under controlled scientific...

Mainstay Of The Heavens

(The number refers to the Plant Lexicon the common name refers to the reference chart 'Overview of Plant Use. Siberian shamans use elaborate symbolic costumes and decorated drums in their ceremonies. The left figure is a shaman from Krasnojarsk District at righi, the Kamtchatka District. or no psychoactivity were substituted. Yet the identity of Soma remained one of the enigmas of ethnobotany for two thousand years. Only in 1968 did the interdisciplinary research of Gordon Was-son provide...

Neurochemistry Of Gaba

The synthesis and metabolism of GABA is closely linked with that of glutamate and the citric acid or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (Fig. 11.1). GABA is produced by the decarboxylation of glutamate, a reaction catalysed by the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). GAD is found in several non-neuronal tissues (including ovary and pancreas) but within the CNS it is a specific marker of GABAergic neurons, where it is present in the cytoplasm as both soluble and membrane-bound forms,...

Noradrenergic Receptors

The division of adrenoceptors into a- and p-types emerged some 50 years ago and was based on the relative potencies of catecholamines in evoking responses in different peripheral tissues. Further subdivision of p-adrenoceptors followed characterisation of their distinctive actions in the heart (pi), where they enhance the rate and force of myocardial contraction and in the bronchi (p2), where they cause relaxation of smooth muscle. The binding profile of selective agonists and antagonists was...

Therapy Outline

In 1952 reserpine, an alkaloid extract from the Indian snakewort plant, Rauwolfia serpentina, which had been used in that country to treat 'madness', was first tried in schizophrenia. The beneficial impact on patients and the hospital wards was dramatic, as was that a year later of chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine derivative and haloperidol, a butyrophenone. These latter two drugs and closely related derivatives remained the mainstay of therapy for almost 40 years. Chlorpromazine had been shown...

The Meth High Dopamine

Methamphetamine's powerful effects come from its impact on the brain's reward, or pleasure, center. Meth does not directly release dopamine. It attaches itself to dopamine receptor sites and fools neurons into releasing large quantities of dopamine. This accounts for the intense rush a user experiences from meth.

Freeze Drying

When it warms, CO, converts from a frozen solid to a gas, without turning into a liquid. When moist marijuana is enclosed with dry ice frozen CO, at virtually zero relative humidity, water molecules migrate from the cannabis to the dry ice. This causes the relative humidity of the CO, to increase and the moisture content of the marijuana to decrease. This process occurs below 32 F 0 C , and it preserves cannabis. Place equal amounts of dry ice and hud into a...

Ephedrine And Pseudoephedrine

The chemicals ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are like cousins to each other. They share the same molecular formula but are structurally different. However, the structural differences between ephedrine and pseudoephedrine do not affect meth production since they are mirror images of each other. They can be used interchangeably as precursors in meth recipes. Precursors are substances that, in nature, might be inactive, but when combined with another chemical, create a new product. Methamphetamine...

Ecstasygroup drug consumption

Globally, ecstasy-group52 substances (primarily MDMA) are consumed by between 11.6-23.5 million people aged 15-64, or 0.3-0.5 of the population. As a proportion of the population, Oceania accounts for the highest annual prevalence of any region (3.6-4.0 of the general population), but has the fewest users in absolute numbers. The region with the highest number of users is Asia, with an estimated range between 3.6-13.6 million annual users, aged 15-64. Most are living in the East and South-East...

Mother Clone Room Design

Oxygen content Nutrients 20 Composition Purity Growing Medium 20 Air content Moisture content The most productive setups utilize two rooms. The first room is for vegetative growth, mother plants, and rooting clones. This room should be about one-quarter the size of the flowering room. When the flowering room crop is harvested, plants from the vegetative room are moved into the flowering room. Super productivity is achieved with a perpetual crop. Several clones are taken every day or every week....

Octomeles sumatrana

From Latin, octomele eight partite and sumatrana from Sumatra Synonymy Octomeles moluccana Teisjm. & Binnend. ex Hassk. Common names Erima, binuang (Malay) benuang (Indonesian) limo (Papua New Guinea). Physical description It is a timber tree found in Malaysia and Indonesia. The stems are smooth, glabrous and terete. Leaves simple, spiral and without stipules. The petiole is quadrangular and 12.5 cm-10 cm x 3mm-4mm. The blade is ovate, glabrous, broadly elliptic-cordate, leathery, and 18.5...

Mushroom Stones and the Cult of Sacred Mushrooms

Mention in several of the early sources on Guatemalan Maya languages of a mushroom specifically named for the underworld i.e. the realm of the dead is especially interesting in light of the discovery of a ceremonial cache of nine beautifully sculptured miniature mushroom stones and nine miniature metates grinding stones , dating back some 2,200 years, in a richly furnished tomb at Kaminaljuyu, a late Preclassic and Early Classic archaeological site near Guatemala City. The coincidence of the...

History of Peyote and Mescaline Use Ancient and Modern

ANCIENT HISTORY OF PEYOTE AND MESCALINE USE Only sparse details are known about the use of peyote and mescaline prior to the beginning of written history. Since peyote is grown mostly in what is now Mexico and the southwestern United States, it is believed that it was used primarily by local inhabitants of these regions for thousands of years before being introduced to people who lived elsewhere. Archaeological evidence suggests that the peyote cactus has been around for at least 10,000 years....

Common Names Lions Mane

Monkey's Head Bear's Head Old Man's Beard Hedgehog Mushroom Satyr's Beard Yamabushi-take (Japanese for Mountain-pnest mushroom I Taxonomic Synonyms & Consideration Formerly known as Hydnum erinac Fr and soma 2*citec a Herici i iceum ( Pe Herimm coraUotd nd Henaum si Jspe es.dis.in in both the-habitat prefere ea be cultivate o sawdus an differs from H. Mnaceus in that its spines fork rather than emerging in dividually. Description Composed of downward, cascading, non-fork' g spines, up to 40...

Theophyllinthylamphetamine Fenetylline

Theoplaphen Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital. Theoprel-plus Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital. Theorate Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital. Theosec Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under international control Phenobarbital. Theoserpin Drug containing more than one substance whereof one under...

Growth Parameters

Incubation Temperature 70-75 F. (21-24 C.) InitiationTemperature 50-60 F. (10-15.6 C.) Temperature 65-75c F. (18-24 C.) Relative Humidity (85) 90-95 Duration 4-5 days C02 500-1000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 5-8 hours per hour. Light Requirements 500-1000 lux. damaged in the course of shaking. The subsequent transfer of these smashed fruitbodies is often followed by a massive bacterial outbreak. If the spawn remains pure, then each 1 2 gallon (liter) of grain spawn can be transferred into four 5...

Retinol Vitamin A Family

Early work on this vitamin was confusing because similar outcomes were seen with ingestion of yellow vegetables and colorless fish liver oils. It finally was shown that carotene (the yellow pigment) extracts from vegetables were converted to colorless retinal. Because the retinoids are discussed in considerably more detail elsewhere, this chapter presents only a cursory overview of their biochemical functions. . 3.1.1 Chemistry. The commercial form cf vitamin A is all-trans retinol, usually...

Soil Containers

Shapes and sizes and can be constructed of almost anything-clay, metal, plastic, wood, and wood fiber are the most common. Cannabis will grow in any clean container that has not been used for petroleum products or deadly chemicals. Clay fiber and wood containers breathe better than plastic or metal pots. Heavy clay pots are brittle and absorb moisture from the soil inside, causing the soil to dry out quickly. Metal pots are also impractical for grow rooms because they oxidize rust and can bleed...

The History of Hallucinogens

Hundreds of species of plants contain the chemical substances we call hallucinogens, and have been altering the thoughts, moods, and perceptions of animals and people all over the world for thousands of years. A hallucinogen user may see a song, hear purple, or hold seemingly coherent conversations with family pets or house plants. A minute can feel like hours, and hours can feel like seconds. A user might become intrigued by a piece of furniture that appears to walk about the dining room, a...

Penalties for Possession and Sale of MDMA in the United States

The average newspaper article about MDMA prior to 2001 frequently quoted up to fifteen years in prison or a 125,000 fine as the penalty for MDMA possession. This penalty has been cited repeatedly in articles about MDMA since its initial emergency scheduling in 1985. The penalties for MDMA possession or intent to distribute are complex. No mandatory minimum sentence exists for MDMA, as it does for some other drugs, such as crack cocaine. The maximum penalties are found in the statutes, but they...

Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning teaches drug users that taking a drug produces pleasure. As a result, drug users take more of the drug. Because drugs of abuse directly activate the brain reward system, the positively rewarding qualities of the drug powerfully reinforce drug-taking behavior. Operant conditioning also teaches drug users that a drug can relieve unpleasant feelings, such as anxiety and stress. So, people learn to take the drug to relieve these negative feelings. The result is that negative...

Advanced Indoor Soil Based Grow Methods

New ways of improving your plants yield have crept up over the years or so and some of them have become quite popular. The three most common new types of indoor growing are SOG, ScrOG and Cabinet growing. These are basically ways to grow seriously large top colas. These methods do not have to be soil based, one can use hydroponics instead but soil is generally the most widely used medium with these set-ups. The idea behind these methods is that the bottom branches of indoor cannabis plants do...

Bromosafrole Phenylisopropylbromide

The third, and last, major category of X precursor is the halogen species. In the world of chemistry, scientists look to add things or change things with a molecule by exploiting 'functional groups'. So far we have been exploring the possibilities of the ketone functional group P2P and the nitro group P-Nitropropene . And although there are lots of different things that can be considered functional groups, the only one left that really has any broad utility for the underground chemist is the...

MDPhenyl2Propanol

And in the recipe above, Vogel want's to get rid of a secondary alcohol just like the one on MD-P2Pol and replace it with a bromine. Wait a minute you may say, That isn't a double bond like AMPHETAMINES & METH AMPHETAMINES FROM BROMOSAFROLE & PHENYLISOPROPYLBROMIDE With bromo or iodo compound in hand it is time to quit and turn one's self over to the proper authorities. Wait There are a few who would continue. Most likely in the following manner. METHOD 1 The bromine on the safrole or...

Fentanyl And Its Analogues

Fentanyl was introduced to the United States in 1968 by the Janssen Pharmaceutical Company and marketed under the trade name Sublimaze. Its primary purpose was for use as an intravenous anesthetic and analgesic. It is 100 times more potent than morphine in reducing pain, and its duration of action is only 30 minutes compared to morphine, which lasts several hours . Over the years, fentanyl has proved to be an extremely useful drug, and to date, it is still widely used for surgeries, childbirth,...

Mushroom of the Underworld

Actually, Thompson was only partly right when he said that the Spaniards were silent on the matter of hallucinogens among the Maya, for several of the early dictionaries compiled by Spanish priests in the Guatemalan highlands demonstrate considerable Indian knowledge of the intoxicating effects of a number of mushroom species.* One of the oldest of the Colonial word lists, the Vico dictionary, which was apparently compiled well before the 1550's, explicitly mentions a mushroom called xibalbaj...

Citrus grandis L Osbeck

From Latin, citrus citron and grandis large Synonymy Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr., Citrus decumana L. Common names Shaddock, Thai grapefruit limau bali, limau besar, limau betawi, limau serdadu (Malay) pamplemousse doux des Antilles (French) you, youzi (Chinese) riesenorange (German) pampaleone (Italian) jerukbali (Indonesian) bhogate (Nepalese). Fig. 238. Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck. Fig. 238. Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck. Physical description It is a fruit tree native to Malaysia which is...

Recommended Mushroom Cookbooks

A Cook's Book of Mushrooms by Jack Czarnecki, 1995. Artisan Books, Workman Publishing New York. Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America A Field-to-Kitchen Guide by David W. Fischer and Alan E. Bessette, 1992. University ofTexas Press, Austin, Texas. Hope's Mushroom Cookbook by Hope Miller, 1993. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. Joe's Book of Mushroom Cookery by Jack Czarnecki, 1988, Athen eum, New York. Mushroom Cookery by Rosetta Reitz, 1945,206 pgs. Gramercy Publishing Co., New York....

Stinkende Hofart Tagetes

Stinking Dutch colloquial term forbeing high Stinking thinking AA and other 12 Step group term alludes to impaired judgement which seems to precede relapses, and to a trained, impartial observer may be a good in dicator of impending relapse - persons with many years of recovery often describe this phenomenon as playing old tapes mental lapses into previous coping mechanisms and the thoughts which accompany those lapses. Stinking thistle Argemone mexicana. Stinkweed Colloquial term for...

Geography Of Usage And Botanical Range

Many more hallucinogenic plants exist than those that man has put to use. Of the probable halfmillion species in the world's flora, only about one thousand are known to be employed for their hallucinogenic properties. Few areas of the globe lack at least one hallucinogen of significance in the culture of the inhabitants. Despite its size and extremely varied vegetation, Africa appears to be poor in hallucinogenic plants. The most famous, of course, is Iboga, a root of the Dogbane family...

Diviners Sage

Closely associated with the Indian mushroom cults is the use of another psychoactive plant Hierba de la Pastora (Salvia divinorum). It is not entirely clear if it was used i i the pre-Spanish times. It is possible that it was the Pipiltzintzintli of the Aztecs. The male or female shamans of the Mazatecs of Oaxaca use Salvia divinorum, which is also known as hoja de la Page 165 top left Painted nettle is used by the Mazatecs as a replacement for Salvia dvinorum Page 165 top right Coleus pumilus...

W Urametelof The North Star

Above left The Datura stramonium var. tatula is the most common in the Hima-ayas It is easily recognized by the violet color of the flower. Above right The sacred Thorn Apple (Datura metel) is often found in the Himalayas on altars to the gods of the mountains (photo taken in Tukche, Nepal) Below right A yellow-flowered Datura metel in full bloom. A beautiful Zuf Indian legend tells of the divine origin of Aneglakya, Datura innoxia, their most sacred plant In the olden time a boy and a girl,...

W Hemp Chronicles

Pershing's Punitive Expedition revealed gaping holes in every aspect of military effectiveness. He submitted a scathing report in October 1916, assessing nearly four months of field activities in which he pointed to numerous deficiencies in combat fitness among almost all units under his command. The expedition bogged down due to its lack of success, tension with Mexican officials and citizens, and the attraction of liquor that was provided by cantinas that remained open all night to provide...

Mitotic Inhibitors

Compounds known to inhibit the mitotic phase of the cell cycle offer potential usefulness in the treatment of cancer. Few such drugs, however, have reached clinical application either because of unacceptable toxicity or ineffectiveness. Two antimitotic agents are used for other purposes. The antibiotic griseofulvin is utilized for its antifungal properties. The alkaloid colchicine, although having antitumor activity, is used in the treatment of gout. Colchicine, obtained from the seeds of...

Prescription Pain Relievers

Combined with an opiate, such as CoTylenol (codeine + Tylenol). When used in combination, the amount of drug needed can be lowered, and the risk of side effects, including addiction, is reduced. These combination drugs don't always work for severe pain, in which case the doctor may prescribe a stronger opiate drug. The gold standard of opiate pain relievers is morphine. It was one of the first compounds extracted, isolated, and purified from the opium poppy, and it continues to be one of the...

Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia is an increase in body temperature to the extent of endangering life it can be a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The condition usually occurs at temperatures over 40 degrees Celsius or 104 degrees Fahrenheit. A commonly reported scenario involves an Ecstasy user who spends time at a dance club, where the ambient temperatures may be high, usually dancing for many hours without adequate fluid replacement. This behavior leads to collapse or convulsions (seizures)...

II h3c ch2 o

Roleofbiotinin leucine catabolism. p-aminobenzoate glutamate Folic Acid (FA) Figure 8.47. Common forms of folic acid and methotrexate. Figure 8.47. Common forms of folic acid and methotrexate. The most reduced coenzyme is 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate polyglutamate. It is the source of the methyl group added to homocys-teine regenerating methionine and tetrahy-drofolate ready to accept a one-carbon unit from formate or serine. This last reaction is where folic acid and vitamin B13 come...

Cote in Culture

Growing Oyster mushrooms in columns gives rise to natural-looking fruitbodies. Having evolved on the vertical surfaces of hardwood trees, Oyster mushrooms with their off-centered stems, grow out horizontally it first, turn, and grow upright at maturity. * TO often results in the formation of highly desirable clusters, or bouquets, of Oyster mushrooms. The advantages of cropping clusters from columns are that many young mushrooms form from a common site, al owing 1 4 to 1 lb. clusters to be...

Extracting Or Separating These Substances

A thorough knowledge of the physical properties of the compounds in the medication that you are dealing with must be known. The Merck Index will have these substances listed along with their mp, bp, and solubilities. The best way to show you how this separation is effected is to give you some examples. Let's say that I just purchased 6 fl. oz. of average codeine cough syrup. I read the label and find that every fl. oz. contains 1000 mg times 6 6000 Pseudoephedrine mg times 6 360 mg mg times 6...

Representative mushrooms causing poisoning cases Rhodophyllus rhodopolius Figure

This mushroom shows the highest incidence of poisoning in Japan, because a very similar edible species Rhodophyllus crassipes is available and grows at similar locations. The poisoning symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain appearing 30 min-3 h after ingestion. The stem of Rhodophyllus rhodopolius is easily crushed by pressure with the finger, but that of the edible Rhodophyllus crassipes is not. The toxic compound being contained in the mushroom is reported to be muscarine or...

Dibromo-olivetol

BCSJ Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan BER Berichte der Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft BSC Bulletin de la Soci t Chimique de France CCCC Collection of Czechoslovakian Chemical Communications CJC Canadian Journal of Chemistry CPB Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin CT Chimie Th rapeutique (Chimica Therapeutica) JACS Journal of the American Chemical Society JBC Journal of Biological Chemistry JCS Journal of the Chemical Society JGC Journal of General Chemistry (English translation of...

Before Making Hash

Make sure your plants are as clean as possible. Any oil-based residues on leaves will show up in the hash. For example, if extracting resin with water, you can see impurity residues as a sheen of oil in the water. During the month before harvest, do not use any harmful chemicals that leave residues. I prefer to use only water-based organic products to avoid potential health risks to the consumer. Flush plants with water for seven to ten days prior to harvest, to remove built-up Resin glands...

Transport Mechanisms within Living Brain Tissue

The physical and chemical phenomena which can affect the transport of a drug (once it is released from its dosage form) within the living brain tissue are very complex and yet not fully understood. Excellent overviews on the importance of diffusion and related processes have been given by Tao and Nicholson (33,34). Nicholson and his co-workers as well as the group of Saltzman made major contributions towards a better understanding of these phenomena (35-41). A large variety of processes can be...

Chemical Crusaders

In addition to a series of formal studies, Leary's group also held psychedelic sessions on their own outside the university. A clinical setting was rejected in favor of the comfortable surroundings of a private apartment where subjects could relax and listen to music by candlelight. Graduate students and selected individuals from the arts were invited to participate in these off-campus experiments, and the vast majority reported positive experiences. Anyone who wanted to take the voyage was...

Drug Testing Deception and Detection

With so many body enhancing products and methods available today, the task of accurately and effectively conducting a large-scale drug testing operation can seem like an impossible challenge. Despite the difficulties, scientists are continually developing new ways to detect body enhancing drugs in athletes. The relatively modern inventions of gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and immunoassays have given hope to sports officials who are charged with the task of cleaning up sports. But...

C02 Emitter Systems

Compressed CO, systems are virtually risk-free, producing no toxic gases, heat, or water. These systems are also precise, metering an exact amount of CO, into the room. Carbon dioxide is metered out of a cylinder of the compressed gas using a regulator, flow meter, a solenoid valve, and a short-range timer. Two types of systems are continuous flow and short range. Metal carbon dioxide cylinders which hold the gas under 1000 to 2200 pounds of pressure per square inch (psi) (depending upon...

Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea that Display Antidiarrheal Activity

In contrast to the studies described in the previous section, the plants investigated below have been validated as treatments for diarrhea on the basis of their ability to prevent or ameliorate diarrheal symptoms induced in experimental animals or tested in clinical trials. As in the previous section, phytochemical analysis of plant preparations and identification of active components has helped to explain the mechanism of antidiarrheal activity. The roots of Jatropha curcus (Euphorbiaceae) are...

Mushroom Cultivation Classic Findings And New Techniques

While conducting research on the Mexican mushroom species during the 1950s, R. Heim and R. Cailleux determined the basic conditions essential to the cultivation of various mushrooms. Before providing additional details, I would like to briefly summarize the nutritional requirements and characteristics of fungal growth, to the extent that these issues are of interest here. Extraterrestrial or Earthly Organisms In terms of cultivation parameters and nutrients, the psychotropic species are no...

Targeting DNA and Topoisomerase I with Indolocarbazole Antitumor Agents

In the cell, DNA primarily exists in a supercoiled form and therefore unwinding of DNA is required prior to using it for transcription, replication, or recombination. These functions require the services of enzymes called topoisomerases, which cleave and religate one or two strands of DNA, and hence allow the DNA to unwind 1 . For more than 15 years, these enzymes have attracted considerable attention as targets for cancer therapeutics since many drugs inhibiting them, such as topotecan,...

Clandestine Greenhouse Weed

20 percent of the cannabinoid profile in a plant. Little study has been done on this cannabinoid. So far, researchers believe it may interact with THC to make the high more intense. For a complete background on cannabinoids, including chemical diagrams, resin profiles, and production of cannabinoids, see the classic book, Marijuana Grower's Guide, by Mel Frank, Redeye Press, 1997, 330 pages. Three excellent reference books that all indoor marijuana horticulturists should have on hand are the...

Common Name

Pacific Madrone Birches Yellow Birch Sweet Birch River Birch Paper Birch European Birch Hairy Birch Hornbeans European Horn bean American Hornbean This list was compiled from trials and reports by the author, Pagony 1973 , San Antonio 1981 , Farr 1983 , Gilbertson amp Ryvarden 1986 , and Chang amp Miles 1989 , Przybylowicz amp Donoghue 1989 , and Kruger 1992 . Some of the listed tree species are probable candidates due to their clc e affinities to species proven to be suitable for cultivation....

Of fte Geirns Hypholoma

- us Hypholoma (Fries) Kummer includes severaHnterestmg speaes alUf which thrive in cold weather, not producing when temperatures exceed 60-65 F. (15-18 C* Ag '' Hprnmnnsp-s thev share similar cultural requirements, and produce a type ol XL saprophytes I h -cultivated. Their uniquely beautiful Zee iaTs not only fantastically rhizomorp , but luxuriously satin-like. Ate the mycelium has -r asever ekre i gPen dprecedespnmordia A k cWptipH indoor cultivation may prove more commercially feasible,...

This mushroom

Earvest Hints Mushrooms should be harvested when the caps are convex. Since the stems elongate muchTn th san n lerasEno* e (Flammulina velutipes), the harvest method is similar. Out Figure 214. H. capnoides fruiting from sterilized hardwood sawdust doors, this mushroom forms clusters, often wiffi several dozen mushrooms arising from a common base. Form of Product Sold to Market Not yet marketed. Nutritional Content Not known to tl is authcr. Medicinal Properties Given this species' woodland...

Oyster Mushroom Substrate Formulas

Hedgehog 388 Heim, R. 328 Hen-of-the-Woods 370-379 H. erinaceus 29, 35, 44, 109, 113-115, 120, Hypholoma 50,236-245 H. capnoides 18, 23, 35, 44, 50, 109, 120, 237-241 H. fascicular 23, 32, 237 H. sublateritium 18, 23, 35, 109, 113, 120, 152, 161, 239, 242-245 H. marmoreus 18, 203, 248, 252 H. tessulatus 18, 115, 153, 203, 205, 206, 246-253, 258, 432, 435-437 H. ulmarius 18, 115, 153, 206, 246-248, 252, 254-258 Kikurage 396 King Stropharia 335 Kumotake 370 Kuritake 242-245 Lae iporus sulphureus...

Exhibit IV2 Dsmiv Substance Abuse Criteria

Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home 2. Recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous 3. Recurrent substance-related legal problems 4. Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused by the effects of the substance Reprinted with permission from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Copyright 1994. American Psychiatric...

Assessment Session Protocol

The counselor welcomes the client and provides an overview of the session. In this session, the counselor assesses the client's marijuana use while laying the foundation for a positive client-counselor relationship. Build Rapport and Give an Overview of the Assessment Process To build rapport and engage the client during the assessment session, the counselor informs the client about the sequence of events for this session and what to expect in the overall treatment approach. Introducing session...

Sole Heirs Of The Universe

When we feel ourselves to be sole heirs of the universe, when 'the sea flows in our veins and the stars are our jewels,when all things arc perceived as infinite and holy, what motive can we have for covctousness or self-assertion, for the pursuit of power or the drearier forms of pleasure Contemplatives aie not likely to become gamblers, or procurers, or drunkards they do not as a rule prcach intolerance, or make war, do not find it necessary to rob, swindle or grind the faces of the poor....

Was A Hippie

Hie newspapers in these cities San Francisco, New York, Chicago have been fascinated by the psyche delic hippies, and at tunes the fascination has verged on obsession. In New York, the Times has devoted many columns of newsprint to their doings, and in San Francisco, the Chrofiick sent a bearded reporter out to spend a month prowling the add dens. (You guessed it 'I Was a Hippie.') F.ven the 78-year-old historian Arnold Toynbee showed up mingling with the flower children of Haight-Asbbu y,...

Molecular characteristics of cannabinoid receptors Cnrs

Marijuana, Cnr gene had been elusive to clone but evidence for the existence of the receptor had been demonstrated since the 1980s (Howlett et al., 1988 Devane et al., 1988). It has now been shown and recognized that cannabinoids have specific receptors with endogenous ligands and inhibit adenylate cyclase. The CB1 receptors also modulate the activities of calcium and potassium channels. Although a number of approaches are now available for the cloning of genes encoding different receptors, the...